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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270412, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with respiratory conditions, such as asthma, are particularly susceptible to adverse health effects associated with higher levels of ambient air pollution and temperature. This study evaluates whether hourly levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and dry bulb globe temperature (DBGT) are associated with the lung function of adult participants with asthma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Global positioning system (GPS) location, respiratory function (measured as forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1)), and self-reports of asthma medication usage and symptoms were collected as part of the Exposure, Location, and Lung Function (ELF) study. Hourly ambient PM2.5 and DBGT exposures were estimated by integrating air quality and temperature public records with time-activity patterns using GPS coordinates for each participant (n = 35). The relationships between acute PM2.5, DBGT, rescue bronchodilator use, and lung function collected in one week periods and over two seasons (summer/winter) were analyzed by multivariate regression, using different exposure time frames. In separate models, increasing levels in PM2.5, but not DBGT, were associated with rescue bronchodilator use. Conversely DBGT, but not PM2.5, had a significant association with FEV1. When DBGT and PM2.5 exposures were placed in the same model, the strongest association between cumulative PM2.5 exposures and the use of rescue bronchodilator was identified at the 0-24 hours (OR = 1.030; 95% CI = 1.012-1.049; p-value = 0.001) and 0-48 hours (OR = 1.030; 95% CI = 1.013-1.057; p-value = 0.001) prior to lung function measure. Conversely, DBGT exposure at 0 hours (ß = 3.257; SE = 0.879; p-value>0.001) and 0-6 hours (ß = 2.885; SE = 0.903; p-value = 0.001) hours before a reading were associated with FEV1. No significant interactions between DBGT and PM2.5 were observed for rescue bronchodilator use or FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term increases in PM2.5 were associated with increased rescue bronchodilator use, while DBGT was associated with higher lung function (i.e. FEV1). Further studies are needed to continue to elucidate the mechanisms of acute exposure to PM2.5 and DBGT on lung function in asthmatics.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Asthma , Adult , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bronchodilator Agents , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Humans , Lung , Temperature
2.
Pediatrics ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Experts hypothesized increased weight gain in children associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, potentially due to closures of schools and recreational facilities with consequent reduction of physical activity and dietary changes. Our objective was to evaluate whether the rate of change of child BMI increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic years. METHODS: The study population of 1996 children ages 2-19 years with at least one BMI measure before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was drawn from 38 pediatric cohorts across the US participating in the ECHO-wide Cohort Study. We modelled change in BMI using linear mixed models adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, maternal education, income, baseline BMI category, and type of BMI measure. Data collection and analysis was approved by the local IRB of each institution or by the central ECHO IRB. RESULTS: BMI increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to previous years (0.24 higher annual gain in BMI during the pandemic compared to previous years, 95% CI 0.02, 0.45). Children with BMI in the obese range compared to the healthy weight range were at higher risk for excess BMI gain during the pandemic, while children in higher-income households were at decreased risk of BMI gain. CONCLUSIONS: One effect of the COVID-19 pandemic is an increase in annual BMI gain during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the three prior years among children in our national cohort. This increased risk among US children may worsen a critical threat to public health and health equity.

3.
Environ Int ; 163: 107226, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773289

ABSTRACT

During events like the COVID-19 pandemic or a disaster, researchers may need to switch from collecting biological samples to personal exposure samplers that are easy and safe to transport and wear, such as silicone wristbands. Previous studies have demonstrated significant correlations between urine biomarker concentrations and chemical levels in wristbands. We build upon those studies and use a novel combination of descriptive statistics and supervised statistical learning to evaluate the relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in silicone wristbands and hydroxy-PAH (OH-PAH) concentrations in urine. In New York City, 109 participants in a longitudinal birth cohort wore one wristband for 48 h and provided a spot urine sample at the end of the 48-hour period during their third trimester of pregnancy. We compared four PAHs with the corresponding seven OH-PAHs using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and a linear discriminant analysis model. Five of the seven PAH and OH-PAH pairs had significant correlations (Pearson's r = 0.35-0.64, p ≤ 0.003) and significant chi-square tests of independence for exposure categories (p ≤ 0.009). For these five comparisons, the observed PAH or OH-PAH concentration could predict the other concentration within a factor of 1.47 for 50-80% of the measurements (depending on the pair). Prediction accuracies for high exposure categories were at least 1.5 times higher compared to accuracies based on random chance. These results demonstrate that wristbands and urine provide similar PAH exposure assessment information, which is critical for environmental health researchers looking for the flexibility to switch between biological sample and wristband collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Pregnancy , Silicones
4.
Pediatrics ; 149(4)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The family stress model proposes economic hardship results in caregiver distress and relational problems, which negatively impact youth outcomes. We extend this model to evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic-related family hardships on caregiver and youth stress, and, in turn, youth's psychological well-being. We also investigate how social supports moderate this relationship. METHODS: We used 2 samples of cross-sectional survey data collected between May 2020 and May 2021: children aged 2 to 12 years (n = 977) and adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (n = 669). Variables included pandemic-related family hardships, stress, social support, and youth life satisfaction. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Experiencing more pandemic-related family hardships was associated with increased caregiver and youth stress (b = 0.04 to 0.21, SE = 0.01-0.02) and, in turn, decreased youth life satisfaction (b = -0.36 to -0.38, SE = 0.04-0.07). Social connectedness (b^ = 0.11-0.17, SE = 0.04) and family engagement (b^ = 0.12-0.18, SE = 0.05-0.06) had direct positive associations with life satisfaction; for children aged 2 to 12 years, greater family engagement was associated with decreased effect of child stress on life satisfaction (b^ = 0.15, SE = 0.05). For adolescents, females had higher levels of stress compared with males (b^ = 0.40, SE = 0.6), and having anxiety and/or depression was associated with decreased life satisfaction (b^ = -0.24, SE = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers and youth who experienced more coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic hardships had higher levels of stress, particularly adolescent females. Although stress negatively impacted life satisfaction across all ages, family engagement was a protective factor for children aged 2 to 12 years, whereas having anxiety and/or depression was a risk factor for adolescents. For all youth, however, being more socially connected and engaged with family promoted life satisfaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
5.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(6): 1008-1009, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20778
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