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1.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 2021 Dec 29.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With more than 1400 COVID-19 inpatients, the university hospital of Essen is the main regional caregiver during COVID-19 pandemic. We present outcome data of our inpatients during the first 12 months of pandemic and our derived clinical care concepts. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all 1396 COVID-19 inpatients presenting between March, 1st of 2020 and February, 28th of 2021 for comorbidities, survival and complications. Group comparison between patients receiving standard care and those requiring intermediate/ intensive care. RESULTS: Mortality rate of all inpatients was 19,8 % (277/ 1396), whereas 10.6 % (93/877) of the patients with standard care and 35.5 % (184/519) of those with intermediate/intensive care died during hospital stay. Age above 60 years, obesity, need for mechanical ventilation, nitric oxide therapy, ECMO and acute renal failure as well as stroke during the clinical course were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The mortality of both patient groups ranges within the numbers published by other international groups. The vast impact of usual comorbidities could be observed as well as the high rate of complications in serious ill COVID-19 patients. The mean age of both patient groups was lower than expected (60 years standard care versus 63 years intermediate/ intensive care). A maximum of patient and staff protection measures, a fast and efficient testing strategy during primary triage, standardized concepts from emergency department to intensive care units and dynamic adjustment of resources to daily changing needs can ensure a high quality of care even during peak of pandemic.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1535-1537, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264309

ABSTRACT

We describe screening results for detection of co-infections with Legionella pneumophila in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In total, 93 patients were tested; 1 was positive (1.1%) for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Co-infections with L. pneumophila occur in coronavirus disease patients and should not be missed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Legionella pneumophila , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 31(8): 165-171, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The RNA virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cell entry is mediated by the human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). ACE2 and its close homolog angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE) are currently discussed candidate genes, in which single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could alter binding or entry of SARS-CoV-2 and enhance tissue damage in the lung or other organs. This could increase the susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed genotyping of SNPs in the genes ACE2 and ACE in 297 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 253 SARS-CoV-2-negative tested patients. We analyzed the association of the SNPs with susceptibility for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients did not differ regarding demographics and clinical characteristics. For ACE2 rs2285666, the GG genotype or G-allele was significantly associated with an almost two-fold increased SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and a three-fold increased risk to develop serious disease or COVID-19 fatality. In contrast, the ACE polymorphism was not related to infection risk or severity of disease. In a multivariable analysis, the ACE2 rs2285666 G-allele remained as an independent risk factor for serious disease besides the known risk factors male gender and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our report appears to be the first showing that a common ACE2 polymorphism impacts the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 independently from previously described risk factors.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224048

ABSTRACT

Infections with SARS-CoV-2 spread worldwide early in 2020. In previous winters, we had been treating patients with seasonal influenza. While creating a larger impact on the health care systems, comparisons regarding the intensive care unit (ICU) courses of both diseases are lacking. We compared patients with influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infections treated at a tertiary care facility offering treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and being a high-volume facility for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic (n = 64) were compared to 64 patients with severe influenza from 2016 to 2020 at our ICU. All patients were treated using a standardized protocol. ECMO was used in cases of severe ARDS. Both groups had similar comorbidities. Time in ICU and mortality were not significantly different, yet mortality with ECMO was high amongst COVID-19 patients with approximately two-thirds not surviving. This is in contrast to a mortality of less than 40% in influenza patients with ECMO. Mortality was higher than estimated by SAPSII score on admission in both groups. Patients with COVID-19 were more likely to be male and non-smokers than those with influenza. The outcomes for patients with severe disease were similar. The study helps to understand similarities and differences between patients treated for severe influenza infections and COVID-19.

5.
Front Genet ; 12: 667231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221943

ABSTRACT

The transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is the major host protease that enables entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into host cells by spike (S) protein priming. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene TMPRSS2 have been associated with susceptibility to and severity of H1N1 or H1N9 influenza A virus infections. Functional variants may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well. Therefore, we analyzed the role of SNPs in the gene TMPRSS2 in a German case-control study. We performed genotyping of the SNPs rs2070788, rs383510, and rs12329760 in the gene TMPRSS2 in 239 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 253 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. We analyzed the association of the SNPs with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients did not differ regarding their demographics. The CC genotype of TMPRSS2 rs383510 was associated with a 1.73-fold increased SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, but was not correlated to severity of COVID-19. Neither TMPRSS2 rs2070788 nor rs12329760 polymorphisms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19. In a multivariable analysis (MVA), the rs383510 CC genotype remained an independent predictor for a 2-fold increased SARS-CoV-2 infection risk. In summary, our report appears to be the first showing that the intron variant rs383510 in the gene TMPRSS2 is associated with an increased risk to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a German cohort.

6.
Transfusion ; 61(5): 1394-1403, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be life-threatening, and specific antiviral drugs are currently not available. However, first studies indicated that convalescent plasma treatment might improve the clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In the current study, we investigated the efficacy of convalescent plasma treatment in eight COVID-19 patients. All the patients were critically ill, and seven of them were SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive when starting treatment. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against the S1 protein (Euroimmun), and the neutralizing titers were determined with a cell-culture-based neutralization assay. Plasma treatment started between 4 and 23 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients were usually treated by three plasma units, each containing 200-280 ml, which was applied at day 1, 3, and 5. RESULTS: Donor sera had on average lower IgG antibody ratios and neutralizing titers than the COVID-19 patients before the onset of treatment (median ratio of 5.8 and neutralizing titer of 1:320 vs. 7.5 and 1:640, respectively). Nevertheless, we observed an increase of antibody ratios in seven and of neutralizing titers in five patients after treatment; which did, however, not correlate with patient survival. Plasma treatment was effective in three patients, but five deceased despite treatment. Patients who deceased had a later treatment onset than survivors and finally died from multiple organ failure. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the efficacy of convalescent plasma treatment of critically ill COVID-19 patients who already had developed strong antiviral immune responses and organ complications is limited.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , COVID-19/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Vero Cells
7.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 14: 1756286421993701, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133530

ABSTRACT

Background: A growing number of reports suggest that infection with SARS-CoV-2 often leads to neurological involvement; however, data on the incidence and severity are limited to mainly case reports and retrospective studies. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study of 102 SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patients investigated the frequency, type, severity and risk factors as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological involvement (NIV) in COVID-19 patients. Results: Across the cohort, 59.8% of patients had NIV. Unspecific NIV was suffered by 24.5%, mainly general weakness and cognitive decline or delirium. Mild NIV was found in 9.8%; most commonly, impaired taste or smell. Severe NIV was present in 23.5%; half of these suffered cerebral ischaemia. Incidence of NIV increased with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Mortality was higher with increasing NIV severity. Notably, 83.3% with severe NIV had a pre-existing neurological co-morbidity. All cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody quotient did not suggest intrathecal antibody synthesis. Of the patients with severe NIV, 50% had blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and showed a trend of elevated interleukin levels in CSF. Antibodies against neuronal and glial epitopes were detected in 35% of the patients tested. Conclusion: Cerebrovascular events were the most frequent severe NIV and severe NIV was associated with high mortality. Incidence of NIV increased with respiratory symptoms and NIV and pre-existing neurological morbidities were independent risk factors for fatality. Inflammatory involvement due to BBB disruption and cytokine release drives NIV, rather than direct viral invasion. These findings might help physicians define a further patient group requiring particular attention during the pandemic.

8.
Cytokine ; 142: 155492, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) plays an important role in the adaptive and innate immune response by inhibiting viral membrane hemifusion between the host and viral cell cytoplasm. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene IFITM3 have been associated with susceptibility and severity of influenza or other viral infections. We aimed to analyze the role of SNPs in the gene IFITM3 in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed genotyping of the SNPs rs12252 and rs34481144 in the gene IFITM3 in 239 SARS-CoV-2-positive and 253 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. We analyzed the association of the SNPs with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients did not differ regarding demographics. Neither IFITM3 rs12252 nor rs34481144 polymorphisms were related to SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19. Interestingly, we observed the putative deleterious rs12252 CC genotype only in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (N = 2). Also, we found a non-significant higher frequency of rs34481144 A-allele carriers in the patients with 'serious' COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we could not confirm the recently reported influence of polymorphisms in the gene IFITM3 on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk or severity of COVID-19 in a German cohort. Additional studies are needed to clarify the influence of the rs12252 CC genotype on SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and the rs34481144 A-allele on course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Dig Dis ; 39(1): 52-57, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver function has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. The aim of our study was to report on the prevalence of liver injury in our cohort, to evaluate the association of mild versus severe liver injury with mortality in COVID-19 patients and to scrutinize the temporal pattern of viral detection and liver injury. METHODS: We present data from a German cohort of 147 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their liver status during treatment. The first group included patients without elevated alanine aminotransferase or bilirubin, the third group patients meeting the biochemical criteria of acute liver failure (ALF), and the second group all other patients. RESULTS: Liver injury was detected in 75 (50.7%) and 93 (63%) patients by admission and during treatment, respectively. ALF was associated with the male sex, younger age, and higher BMI. Mortality was associated with the presence of ALF (OR = 9.423, 95% CI: 2.410-36.858) in contrast to milder liver injury (OR 1.101, 95% CI: 0.435-2.791). In 30% of patients with mild liver injury and in 50% of ALF patients, peak liver injury was observed at a time point when the virus was no longer detectable in the respiratory tract. CONCLUSION: Mild liver injury was not associated with worse outcome in our cohort, and the pattern of liver injury did not fit well to the theory of SARS-CoV-2 directly causing liver impairment. Instead, severe liver injury in our cohort was associated multiple-organ failure and acute vascular events.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Correlation of Data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/blood , Liver Failure, Acute/epidemiology , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index
10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 162-166, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938417

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging the care for cardiovascular patients, resulting in serious consequences with increasing mortality in pre-diseased heart failure patients. In the current state of the pandemic, the physiopathology of COVID-19 affecting pre-diseased hearts and the management of terminal heart failure in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. We outline the findings of a young COVID-19 patient suffering from idiopathic cardiomyopathy who was treated for acute multi-organ failure and required cardiac surgery with implantation of a temporary right ventricular and durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). For deeper translational insights, we used in-depth tissue analysis by electron and light sheet fluorescence microscopy revealing evidence for spatial distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the heart. This indicates that in-depth analysis may represent a valuable tool in understanding indistinct clinical cases. We conclude that COVID-19 directly affects pre-diseased hearts, but the consequences can be treated successfully with LVAD implantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/etiology , Heart-Assist Devices , Adult , Biopsy , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/pathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Humans , Male , Prosthesis Implantation , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
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