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1.
PLoS Biol ; 19(12): e3001065, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594053

ABSTRACT

The pandemic spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), represents an ongoing international health crisis. A key symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the onset of fever, with a hyperthermic temperature range of 38 to 41°C. Fever is an evolutionarily conserved host response to microbial infection that can influence the outcome of viral pathogenicity and regulation of host innate and adaptive immune responses. However, it remains to be determined what effect elevated temperature has on SARS-CoV-2 replication. Utilizing a three-dimensional (3D) air-liquid interface (ALI) model that closely mimics the natural tissue physiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory airway, we identify tissue temperature to play an important role in the regulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Respiratory tissue incubated at 40°C remained permissive to SARS-CoV-2 entry but refractory to viral transcription, leading to significantly reduced levels of viral RNA replication and apical shedding of infectious virus. We identify tissue temperature to play an important role in the differential regulation of epithelial host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection that impact upon multiple pathways, including intracellular immune regulation, without disruption to general transcription or epithelium integrity. We present the first evidence that febrile temperatures associated with COVID-19 inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in respiratory epithelia. Our data identify an important role for tissue temperature in the epithelial restriction of SARS-CoV-2 independently of canonical interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immune defenses.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/immunology , Hot Temperature , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , RNA-Seq/methods , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology
2.
Science ; 374(6567): eabj3624, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440797

ABSTRACT

Inherited genetic factors can influence the severity of COVID-19, but the molecular explanation underpinning a genetic association is often unclear. Intracellular antiviral defenses can inhibit the replication of viruses and reduce disease severity. To better understand the antiviral defenses relevant to COVID-19, we used interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression screening to reveal that 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), through ribonuclease L, potently inhibits severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We show that a common splice-acceptor single-nucleotide polymorphism (Rs10774671) governs whether patients express prenylated OAS1 isoforms that are membrane-associated and sense-specific regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs or if they only express cytosolic, nonprenylated OAS1 that does not efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2. In hospitalized patients, expression of prenylated OAS1 was associated with protection from severe COVID-19, suggesting that this antiviral defense is a major component of a protective antiviral response.


Subject(s)
2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/genetics , 2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , 5' Untranslated Regions , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae/enzymology , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronaviridae/physiology , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/genetics , Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases/metabolism , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Protein Prenylation , RNA, Double-Stranded/chemistry , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retroelements , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Replication
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 31-38, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294729

ABSTRACT

Virus-virus interactions influence the epidemiology of respiratory infections. However, the impact of viruses causing upper respiratory infections on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication and transmission is currently unknown. Human rhinoviruses cause the common cold and are the most prevalent respiratory viruses of humans. Interactions between rhinoviruses and cocirculating respiratory viruses have been shown to shape virus epidemiology at the individual host and population level. Here, we examined the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in the human respiratory epithelium in the presence or absence of rhinovirus. We show that human rhinovirus triggers an interferon response that blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mathematical simulations show that this virus-virus interaction is likely to have a population-wide effect as an increasing prevalence of rhinovirus will reduce the number of new coronavirus disease 2019 cases.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
4.
Vet Rec ; 188(8): e247, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to find evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK cats. DESIGN: Tissue samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antigen using immunofluorescence and for viral RNA by in situ hybridisation. A set of 387 oropharyngeal swabs that had been submitted for routine respiratory pathogen testing was tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Lung tissue collected post-mortem from cat 1 tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen and RNA. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in an oropharyngeal swab collected from cat 2 that presented with rhinitis and conjunctivitis. High throughput sequencing of the viral genome revealed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) compared to the nearest UK human SARS-CoV-2 sequence, and this human virus contained eight SNPs compared to the original Wuhan-Hu-1 reference sequence. An analysis of the viral genome of cat 2 together with nine other feline-derived SARS-CoV-2 sequences from around the world revealed no shared cat-specific mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that human-to-cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, with the infected cats developing mild or severe respiratory disease. Given the ability of the new coronavirus to infect different species, it will be important to monitor for human-to-cat, cat-to-cat and cat-to-human transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Female , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178429

ABSTRACT

Vascular changes represent a characteristic feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection leading to a breakdown of the vascular barrier and subsequent edema formation. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed characterization of the vascular alterations during SARS-CoV-2 infection and to evaluate the impaired vascular integrity. Groups of ten golden Syrian hamsters were infected intranasally with SARS-CoV-2 or phosphate-buffered saline (mock infection). Necropsies were performed at 1, 3, 6, and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Lung samples were investigated using hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue, immunohistochemistry targeting aquaporin 1, CD3, CD204, CD31, laminin, myeloperoxidase, SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, and transmission electron microscopy. SARS-CoV-2 infected animals showed endothelial hypertrophy, endothelialitis, and vasculitis. Inflammation mainly consisted of macrophages and lower numbers of T-lymphocytes and neutrophils/heterophils infiltrating the vascular walls as well as the perivascular region at 3 and 6 dpi. Affected vessels showed edema formation in association with loss of aquaporin 1 on endothelial cells. In addition, an ultrastructural investigation revealed disruption of the endothelium. Summarized, the presented findings indicate that loss of aquaporin 1 entails the loss of intercellular junctions resulting in paracellular leakage of edema as a key pathogenic mechanism in SARS-CoV-2 triggered pulmonary lesions.


Subject(s)
Aquaporin 1/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Inflammation/pathology , Animals , Blood Vessels/ultrastructure , Disease Models, Animal , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/blood supply , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis/pathology , Vasculitis/virology
6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 31-38, 2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146657

ABSTRACT

Virus-virus interactions influence the epidemiology of respiratory infections. However, the impact of viruses causing upper respiratory infections on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication and transmission is currently unknown. Human rhinoviruses cause the common cold and are the most prevalent respiratory viruses of humans. Interactions between rhinoviruses and cocirculating respiratory viruses have been shown to shape virus epidemiology at the individual host and population level. Here, we examined the replication kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in the human respiratory epithelium in the presence or absence of rhinovirus. We show that human rhinovirus triggers an interferon response that blocks SARS-CoV-2 replication. Mathematical simulations show that this virus-virus interaction is likely to have a population-wide effect as an increasing prevalence of rhinovirus will reduce the number of new coronavirus disease 2019 cases.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
7.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001091, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102372

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a worldwide pandemic causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic devastation. In response, many laboratories have redirected attention to SARS-CoV-2, meaning there is an urgent need for tools that can be used in laboratories unaccustomed to working with coronaviruses. Here we report a range of tools for SARS-CoV-2 research. First, we describe a facile single plasmid SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics system that is simple to genetically manipulate and can be used to rescue infectious virus through transient transfection (without in vitro transcription or additional expression plasmids). The rescue system is accompanied by our panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (against nearly every viral protein), SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates, and SARS-CoV-2 permissive cell lines, which are all openly available to the scientific community. Using these tools, we demonstrate here that the controversial ORF10 protein is expressed in infected cells. Furthermore, we show that the promising repurposed antiviral activity of apilimod is dependent on TMPRSS2 expression. Altogether, our SARS-CoV-2 toolkit, which can be directly accessed via our website at https://mrcppu-covid.bio/, constitutes a resource with considerable potential to advance COVID-19 vaccine design, drug testing, and discovery science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Reverse Genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Codon , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Mice , Morpholines/pharmacology , Open Reading Frames , Plasmids/genetics , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823775

ABSTRACT

Neurotropic viruses infect the central nervous system (CNS) and cause acute or chronic neurologic disabilities. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role for immune homeostasis, but may inhibit pathogen-specific immunity in infectious disorders. The present review summarizes the current knowledge about Treg in human CNS infections and their animal models. Besides dampening pathogen-induced immunopathology, Treg have the ability to facilitate protective responses by supporting effector T cell trafficking to the infection site and the development of resident memory T cells. Moreover, Treg can reduce virus replication by inducing apoptosis of infected macrophages and attenuate neurotoxic astrogliosis and pro-inflammatory microglial responses. By contrast, detrimental effects of Treg are caused by suppression of antiviral immunity, allowing for virus persistence and latency. Opposing disease outcomes following Treg manipulation in different models might be attributed to differences in technique and timing of intervention, infection route, genetic background, and the host's age. In addition, mouse models of virus-induced demyelination revealed that Treg are able to reduce autoimmunity and immune-mediated CNS damage in a disease phase-dependent manner. Understanding the unique properties of Treg and their complex interplay with effector cells represents a prerequisite for the development of new therapeutic approaches in neurotropic virus infections.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Humans
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