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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1): 128-136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The number of SARS-CoV-2 infections is underestimated in surveillance data. Various approaches to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 have different resource requirements and generalizability. We estimated the seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in Denver County, Colorado, via a cluster-sampled community survey. METHODS: We estimated the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 via a community seroprevalence survey in Denver County in July 2020, described patterns associated with seroprevalence, and compared results with cumulative COVID-19 incidence as reported to the health department during the same period. In addition, we compared seroprevalence as assessed with a temporally and geographically concordant convenience sample of residual clinical specimens from a commercial laboratory. RESULTS: Based on 404 specimens collected through the community survey, 8.0% (95% CI, 3.9%-15.7%) of Denver County residents had antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, an infection rate of about 7 times that of the 1.1% cumulative reported COVID-19 incidence during this period. The estimated infection-to-reported case ratio was highest among children (34.7; 95% CI, 11.1-91.2) and males (10.8; 95% CI, 5.7-19.3). Seroprevalence was highest among males of Black race or Hispanic ethnicity and was associated with previous COVID-19-compatible illness, a previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and close contact with someone who had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Testing of 1598 residual clinical specimens yielded a seroprevalence of 6.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-9.2%); the difference between the 2 estimates was 1.2 percentage points (95% CI, -3.6 to 12.2 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: Testing residual clinical specimens provided a similar seroprevalence estimate yet yielded limited insight into the local epidemiology of COVID-19 and might be less representative of the source population than a cluster-sampled community survey. Awareness of the limitations of various sampling strategies is necessary when interpreting findings from seroprevalence assessments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Young Adult
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1284-1290, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417365

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough infection surveillance helps monitor trends in disease incidence and severe outcomes in fully vaccinated persons, including the impact of the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Reported COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths occurring among persons aged ≥18 years during April 4-July 17, 2021, were analyzed by vaccination status across 13 U.S. jurisdictions that routinely linked case surveillance and immunization registry data. Averaged weekly, age-standardized incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for cases among persons who were not fully vaccinated compared with those among fully vaccinated persons decreased from 11.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.8-15.8) to 4.6 (95% CI = 2.5-8.5) between two periods when prevalence of the Delta variant was lower (<50% of sequenced isolates; April 4-June 19) and higher (≥50%; June 20-July 17), and IRRs for hospitalizations and deaths decreased between the same two periods, from 13.3 (95% CI = 11.3-15.6) to 10.4 (95% CI = 8.1-13.3) and from 16.6 (95% CI = 13.5-20.4) to 11.3 (95% CI = 9.1-13.9). Findings were consistent with a potential decline in vaccine protection against confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and continued strong protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death. Getting vaccinated protects against severe illness from COVID-19, including the Delta variant, and monitoring COVID-19 incidence by vaccination status might provide early signals of changes in vaccine-related protection that can be confirmed through well-controlled vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most current evidence on risk factors for hospitalization because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) comes from studies using data abstracted primarily from electronic health records, limited to specific populations, or that fail to capture over-the-counter medications and adjust for potential confounding factors. Properly understanding risk factors for hospitalization will help improve clinical management and facilitate targeted prevention messaging and forecasting and prioritization of clinical and public health resource needs. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for hospitalization using patient questionnaires and chart abstraction. METHODS: We randomly selected 600 of 1,738 laboratory-confirmed Colorado COVID-19 cases with known hospitalization status and illness onset during March 9-31, 2020. In April 2020, we collected demographics, social history, and medications taken in the 30 days before illness onset via telephone questionnaire and collected underlying medical conditions in patient questionnaires and medical record abstraction. RESULTS: Overall, 364 patients participated; 128 were hospitalized and 236 were non-hospitalized. In multivariable analysis, chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure with oxygen requirement (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-147.93), taking opioids (aOR 8.05; CI 1.16-55.77), metabolic syndrome (aOR 5.71; CI 1.18-27.54), obesity (aOR 3.35; CI 1.58-7.09), age ≥65 years (aOR 3.22; CI 1.20-7.97), hypertension (aOR 3.14; CI 1.47-6.71), arrhythmia (aOR 2.95; CI 1.00-8.68), and male sex (aOR 2.65; CI 1.44-4.88), were significantly associated with hospitalization. CONCLUSION: We identified patient characteristics, medications, and medical conditions, including some novel ones, associated with hospitalization. These data can be used to inform clinical and public health resource needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Colorado , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(32): 1084-1087, 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355298

ABSTRACT

On May 5, 2021, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) identified the first five COVID-19 cases caused by the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant in Mesa County in western Colorado (population 154,933, <3% of the state population). All five initial cases were associated with school settings. Through early June, Mesa County experienced a marked increase in the proportion of Delta variant cases identified through sequencing: the 7-day proportion of sequenced specimens identified as B.1.617.2 in Mesa County more than doubled, from 43% for the week ending May 1 to 88% for the week ending June 5. As of June 6, more than one half (51%) of sequenced B.1.617.2 specimens in Colorado were from Mesa County. CDPHE assessed data from surveillance, vaccination, laboratory, and hospital sources to describe the preliminary epidemiology of the Delta variant and calculate crude vaccine effectiveness (VE). Vaccination coverage in early May in Mesa County was lower (36% of eligible residents fully vaccinated) than that in the rest of the state (44%). Compared with that in all other Colorado counties, incidence, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and COVID-19 case fatality ratios were significantly higher in Mesa County during the analysis period, April 27-June 6, 2021. In addition, during the same time period, the proportion of COVID-19 cases in persons who were fully vaccinated (vaccine breakthrough cases) was significantly higher in Mesa County compared with that in all other Colorado counties. Estimated crude VE against reported symptomatic infection for a 2-week period ending June 5 was 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71%-84%) for Mesa County and 89% (95% CI = 88%-91%) for other Colorado counties. Vaccination is a critical strategy for preventing infection, serious illness, and death from COVID-19. Enhanced mitigation strategies, including masking in indoor settings irrespective of vaccination status, should be considered in areas with substantial or high case rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2312-2322, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290057

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic necessitated rapid local public health response, but studies examining the impact of social distancing policies on SARS-CoV-2 transmission have struggled to capture regional-level dynamics. We developed a susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered transmission model, parameterized to Colorado, USA‒specific data, to estimate the impact of coronavirus disease‒related policy measures on mobility and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in real time. During March‒June 2020, we estimated unknown parameter values and generated scenario-based projections of future clinical care needs. Early coronavirus disease policy measures, including a stay-at-home order, were accompanied by substantial decreases in mobility and reduced the effective reproductive number well below 1. When some restrictions were eased in late April, mobility increased to near baseline levels, but transmission remained low (effective reproductive number <1) through early June. Over time, our model parameters were adjusted to more closely reflect reality in Colorado, leading to modest changes in estimates of intervention effects and more conservative long-term projections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Policy
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(19): 717-718, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229498

ABSTRACT

The B.1.427 and B.1.429 variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, were first described in Southern California on January 20, 2021 (1); on March 16 they were designated variants of concern* (2). Data on these variants are limited, but initial reports suggest that, compared with other lineages, they might be more infectious (1,2), cause more severe illness (2), and be less susceptible to neutralizing monoclonal antibody products such as bamlanivimab, an investigational treatment for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 (1-3). On January 24, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) identified the first Colorado case of COVID-19 attributed to these variants. B.1.427 and B.1.429 were considered a single variant described as CAL.20C or B.1.427/B.1.429 in the 20C clade (1,3); in this report "B.1.427/B.1.429" refers to B.1.427 or B.1.429 lineage, including those reported as B.1.427/B.1.429 without further differentiation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 385-395, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076427

ABSTRACT

To improve recognition of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and inform clinical and public health guidance, we randomly selected 600 COVID-19 case-patients in Colorado. A telephone questionnaire captured symptoms experienced, when symptoms occurred, and how long each lasted. Among 128 hospitalized patients, commonly reported symptoms included fever (84%), fatigue (83%), cough (73%), and dyspnea (72%). Among 236 nonhospitalized patients, commonly reported symptoms included fatigue (90%), fever (83%), cough (83%), and myalgia (74%). The most commonly reported initial symptoms were cough (21%-25%) and fever (20%-25%). In multivariable analysis, vomiting, dyspnea, altered mental status, dehydration, and wheezing were significantly associated with hospitalization, whereas rhinorrhea, headache, sore throat, and anosmia or ageusia were significantly associated with nonhospitalization. General symptoms and upper respiratory symptoms occurred earlier in disease, and anosmia, ageusia, lower respiratory symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred later. Symptoms should be considered alongside other epidemiologic factors in clinical and public health decisions regarding potential COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 923-929, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981648

ABSTRACT

During January 1, 2020-May 18, 2020, approximately 1.3 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 83,000 COVID-19-associated deaths were reported in the United States (1). Understanding the demographic and clinical characteristics of decedents could inform medical and public health interventions focused on preventing COVID-19-associated mortality. This report describes decedents with laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, using data from 1) the standardized CDC case-report form (case-based surveillance) (https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/reporting-pui.html) and 2) supplementary data (supplemental surveillance), such as underlying medical conditions and location of death, obtained through collaboration between CDC and 16 public health jurisdictions (15 states and New York City).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Public Health Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1576-1583, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895763

ABSTRACT

Health care personnel (HCP) can be exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both within and outside the workplace, increasing their risk for infection. Among 6,760 adults hospitalized during March 1-May 31, 2020, for whom HCP status was determined by the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), 5.9% were HCP. Nursing-related occupations (36.3%) represented the largest proportion of HCP hospitalized with COVID-19. Median age of hospitalized HCP was 49 years, and 89.8% had at least one underlying medical condition, of which obesity was most commonly reported (72.5%). A substantial proportion of HCP with COVID-19 had indicators of severe disease: 27.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 15.8% required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4.2% died during hospitalization. HCP can have severe COVID-19-associated illness, highlighting the need for continued infection prevention and control in health care settings as well as community mitigation efforts to reduce transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(26): 847-849, 2020 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635894

ABSTRACT

On March 26, 2020, Colorado instituted stay-at-home orders to reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To inform public health messaging and measures that could be used after reopening, persons with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 9-26 from nine Colorado counties comprising approximately 80% of the state's population† (Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas, El Paso, Jefferson, Larimer, and Weld) were asked about possible exposures to SARS-CoV-2 before implementation of stay-at-home orders. Among 1,738 persons meeting the inclusion criteria§ in the Colorado Electronic Disease Surveillance System, 600 were randomly selected and interviewed using a standardized questionnaire by telephone. Data collection during April 10-30 included information about demographic characteristics, occupations, and selected activities in the 2 weeks preceding symptom onset. During the period examined, SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing was widely available in Colorado; community transmission was documented before implementation of the stay-at-home order. At least three attempts were made to contact all selected patients or their proxy (for deceased patients, minors, and persons unable to be interviewed [e.g., those with dementia]) on at least 2 separate days, at different times of day. Data were entered into a Research Electronic Data Capture (version 9.5.13; Vanderbilt University) database, and descriptive analyses used R statistical software (version 3.6.3; The R Foundation).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , COVID-19 , Colorado/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18)2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-153541

ABSTRACT

Congregate work and residential locations are at increased risk for infectious disease transmission including respiratory illness outbreaks. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is primarily spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Nationwide, the meat and poultry processing industry, an essential component of the U.S. food infrastructure, employs approximately 500,000 persons, many of whom work in proximity to other workers (1). Because of reports of initial cases of COVID-19, in some meat processing facilities, states were asked to provide aggregated data concerning the number of meat and poultry processing facilities affected by COVID-19 and the number of workers with COVID-19 in these facilities, including COVID-19-related deaths. Qualitative data gathered by CDC during on-site and remote assessments were analyzed and summarized. During April 9-27, aggregate data on COVID-19 cases among 115 meat or poultry processing facilities in 19 states were reported to CDC. Among these facilities, COVID-19 was diagnosed in 4,913 (approximately 3%) workers, and 20 COVID-19-related deaths were reported. Facility barriers to effective prevention and control of COVID-19 included difficulty distancing workers at least 6 feet (2 meters) from one another (2) and in implementing COVID-19-specific disinfection guidelines.* Among workers, socioeconomic challenges might contribute to working while feeling ill, particularly if there are management practices such as bonuses that incentivize attendance. Methods to decrease transmission within the facility include worker symptom screening programs, policies to discourage working while experiencing symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and social distancing by workers. Source control measures (e.g., the use of cloth face covers) as well as increased disinfection of high-touch surfaces are also important means of preventing SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Mitigation efforts to reduce transmission in the community should also be considered. Many of these measures might also reduce asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission (3). Implementation of these public health strategies will help protect workers from COVID-19 in this industry and assist in preserving the critical meat and poultry production infrastructure (4).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Food-Processing Industry , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Meat , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poultry , United States/epidemiology
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