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1.
iScience ; 25(8): 104847, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069196

ABSTRACT

Different immune-mediated diseases have been described after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) being one of the possible side effects. In this study, a total of 35 patients presented ANCA for the first time during 2021, with the number during 2019 being 15. Twenty-seven out of thirty-five patients developed ANCA after vaccination. Two of them developed these antibodies after receiving the first dose (7.4%), and 25 patients developed ANCA after the second dose of the vaccine (92.6%), with BNT162b2 being the main vaccine received by these patients. In 97.1% of the patients who developed ANCA during 2021, the positivity of ANCA was accompanied by systemic involvement, with renal and respiratory tracts being the main organs affected. Therefore, an increase in the development of AAV has been observed during 2021 in comparison with 2019, which could be due to the administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

2.
iScience ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970535

ABSTRACT

Different immune-mediated diseases have been described after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, being antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) one of the possible side effects. In this study, a total of 35 patients presented ANCA for the first time during 2021, being this number of 15 during 2019. 27 out of 35 patients developed ANCA after vaccination. Two of them developed these antibodies after receiving the first dose (7.4%), and 25 patients developed ANCA after the second dose of the vaccine (92.6%), being BNT162b2 the main vaccine received by these patients. In 97.1% of the patients who developed ANCA during 2021, the positivity of ANCA was accompanied by systemic involvement, being renal and respiratory tracts the main organs affected. Therefore, an increase in the development of AAV has been observed during 2021 in comparison with 2019, which could be due to the administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Graphical

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334400

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections may predispose to co-infections with other pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, pathogenic respiratory bacteria were detected in patients with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suffering respiratory symptoms such as cough, fever, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, respiratory distress, and fatigue. Patients without respiratory symptoms were included as controls. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the main bacteria found in patients with respiratory symptoms (including hospitalized patients) in both positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Pathogenic bacteria possibly proliferate due to the limited immune response of patients with SARS-CoV-2, perhaps due to dysbiosis generated by the viral infection.

4.
Revista Reflexiones ; 102(2):1-13, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1786390

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This article reflects on the way the health, economic, and social crisis caused by Covid-19 has worsened the existing inequalities between men and women in relation to time use and care economy. Objective: Its purpose is to analyze the elements that unleashed this setback and explore the possibilities of containing and reversing it from public policies' management and the collective organization. Method: A documentary review and descriptive analysis are proposed, considering the panorama prior to the pandemic about this issue, the data, and its effects on households' dynamics. Results: The findings show the risk that women's time will continue to be exploited even more by State and market policies which still do not do enough to place the care crisis as the focus of the social recovery priorities. Likewise, some dimensions are proposed to consider encouraging collective participation in the visibility and redistribution of these tasks. Conclusions: As a conclusion, the discussion presents a clear urgency in the topic since it is not possible to delay the review of inequality conditions faced by most women. Those who through the care and free extraction of their time, not only bear the greatest burden of the economy, but have also historically made the daily support of life possible. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Introducción: El presente artículo reflexiona sobre la manera en la que la crisis sanitaria, económica y social provocada por el COVID-19 ha exacerbado las desigualdades ya existentes entre hombres y mujeres, esto en relación con el uso del tiempo y la economía del cuidado. Objetivo: El propósito del texto es analizar los elementos que dan pie a este retroceso y explorar las posibilidades de contenerlo y revertirlo a partir no solamente de la gestión de políticas públicas, sino también desde la organización colectiva. Método: Se plantea una revisión documental y un análisis descriptivo, tomando en cuenta el panorama previo a la pandemia en esta temática y los datos sobre los efectos de la misma en las dinámicas a lo interno de los hogares. Resultados: Los hallazgos evidencian el riesgo de que el tiempo de las mujeres continúe siendo aún más explotado por las políticas del Estado y del mercado, instancias que aún no hacen lo suficiente por colocar el tema de la crisis del cuidado al centro de las prioridades de recuperación social. Asimismo, se plantean algunas dimensiones a tomar en cuenta para propiciar la participación colectiva en la visibilización y redistribución de estas tareas. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la discusión presenta un importante carácter de urgencia, pues no es posible retrasar más la revisión de las condiciones de desigualdad que enfrentan mayoritariamente las mujeres. Quienes, a través del cuidado y la extracción gratuita de su tiempo, no solamente soportan el mayor peso de la economía, sino que también han hecho históricamente posible el sostenimiento cotidiano de la vida. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Revista Reflexiones is the property of Universidad de Costa Rica and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 410-416, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 from Venezuelan migrants living in Colombia. METHODS: This study sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from 30 clinical specimens collected from Venezuelan migrants. Genomes were compared with the Wuhan reference genome to identify polymorphisms, reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and perform comparative genomic analyses. Geographic, sociodemographic and clinical data were also studied across genotypes. RESULTS: This study demonstrated the presence of six distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating among Venezuelan migrants, as well as a close relationship between SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences obtained from individuals living in the Venezuelan-Colombian border regions of La Guajira (Colombia) and Zulia (Venezuela). Three clusters (C-1, C-2 and C-3) were well supported by phylogenomic inference, supporting the hypothesis of three potential transmission routes across the Colombian-Venezuelan border. These genomes included point mutations previously associated with increased infectivity. A mutation (L18F) in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein that has been associated with compromised binding of neutralizing antibodies was found in 2 of 30 (6.6%) genomes. A statistically significant association was identified with symptomatology for cluster C2. CONCLUSION: The close phylogenetic relationships between SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Venezuelan migrants and from people living at the Venezuela-Colombian border support the importance of human movements for the spread of COVID-19 and for emerging virus variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(19)2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254144

ABSTRACT

Backtracking, the reverse motion of the transcriptase enzyme on the nucleic acid template, is a universal regulatory feature of transcription in cellular organisms but its role in viruses is not established. Here we present evidence that backtracking extends into the viral realm, where backtracking by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) may aid viral transcription and replication. Structures of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp bound to the essential nsp13 helicase and RNA suggested the helicase facilitates backtracking. We use cryo-electron microscopy, RNA-protein cross-linking, and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations to characterize SARS-CoV-2 RdRp backtracking. The results establish that the single-stranded 3' segment of the product RNA generated by backtracking extrudes through the RdRp nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) entry tunnel, that a mismatched nucleotide at the product RNA 3' end frays and enters the NTP entry tunnel to initiate backtracking, and that nsp13 stimulates RdRp backtracking. Backtracking may aid proofreading, a crucial process for SARS-CoV-2 resistance against antivirals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy/methods , DNA Helicases/metabolism , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
7.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 39, 2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited and controverting evidence looking at possible associations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copies and patient variables in large cohorts of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. METHODS: We studied 2275 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients from Colombia with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and analyzed the associations between RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value with gender, age, comorbidities, symptomatology, and disease severity. RESULTS: 15.4 % of the samples (n = 428) reported at least one comorbidity. There were 2011 symptomatic cases (72.4 %), being the most common reported symptom cough (57.2 %, n = 1586). Respiratory distress was present in 21.4 % of patients (n = 595), and 435 patients (15.6 %) required hospital admission. We observed that patients with no prior medical history harbored higher RNA copies than patients with comorbidities (p = 0.02). No significant differences in RNA copies were observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (p = 0.82). Strong correlations were detected between Ct values and the presence of odynophagia (p = 0.03), diarrhea (p = 0.04), and headache (p = 0.0008). An inverse association was found between RNA copy number and markers of disease severity, namely, respiratory distress (P < 0.0001) and hospitalization requirement (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR cycle thresholds reveal strong associations with a prior medical history, specific symptomatology, and disease severity markers. Further research controlling potential confounding variables needs to be conducted to evaluate the nature and usefulness of these associations in managing COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Colombia , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5618-5622, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206843

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has led to the design and development of multiple reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction kits aimed to facilitate the rapid scale-up of molecular testing for massive screening. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of nine commercial kits, which showed optimal performance and high discriminatory power. However, we observed differences in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and E gene Ct Values and discuss these results in light of the influence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic variability and its potential impact in current molecular diagnostic assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Colombia , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1158-1163, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196437

ABSTRACT

We performed phylogenomic analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 from 88 infected individuals across different regions of Colombia. Eleven different lineages were detected, suggesting multiple introduction events. Pangolin lineages B.1 and B.1.5 were the most frequent, with B.1 being associated with prior travel to high-risk areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Colombia/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Travel
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009327, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced health authorities across the world to take important decisions to curtail its spread. Genomic epidemiology has emerged as a valuable tool to understand introductions and spread of the virus in a specific geographic location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the sequences of 59 SARS-CoV-2 samples from inhabitants of the Colombian Amazonas department. The viral genomes were distributed in two robust clusters within the distinct GISAID clades GH and G. Spatial-temporal analyses revealed two independent introductions of SARS-CoV-2 in the region, one around April 1, 2020 associated with a local transmission, and one around April 2, 2020 associated with other South American genomes (Uruguay and Brazil). We also identified ten lineages circulating in the Amazonas department including the P.1 variant of concern (VOC). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first genomic epidemiology investigation of SARS-CoV-2 in one of the territories with the highest report of indigenous communities of the country. Such findings are essential to decipher viral transmission, inform on global spread and to direct implementation of infection prevention and control measures for these vulnerable populations, especially, due to the recent circulation of one of the variants of concern (P.1) associated with major transmissibility and possible reinfections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/transmission , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Indians, South American , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spatial Analysis , Time Factors
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(1): e1-e6, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there are no comprehensive data on pediatric COVID-19 from Latin America. This study aims to assess COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) in Latin American children, to appropriately plan and allocate resources to face the pandemic on a local and international level. METHODS: Ambispective multicenter cohort study from 5 Latin American countries. Children 18 years of age or younger with microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or fulfilling MIS-C definition were included. FINDINGS: Four hundred nine children were included, with a median age of 3.0 years (interquartile range 0.6-9.0). Of these, 95 (23.2%) were diagnosed with MIS-C. One hundred ninety-one (46.7%) children were admitted to hospital and 52 (12.7%) required admission to a pediatric intensive care unit. Ninety-two (22.5%) patients required oxygen support: 8 (2%) were started on continuous positive airway pressure and 29 (7%) on mechanical ventilation. Thirty-five (8.5%) patients required inotropic support. The following factors were associated with pediatric intensive care unit admission: preexisting medical condition (P < 0.0001), immunodeficiency (P = 0.01), lower respiratory tract infection (P < 0.0001), gastrointestinal symptoms (P = 0.006), radiologic changes suggestive of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (P < 0.0001) and low socioeconomic conditions (P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a generally more severe form of COVID-19 and a high number of MIS-C in Latin American children, compared with studies from China, Europe and North America, and support current evidence of a more severe disease in Latin/Hispanic children or in people of lower socioeconomic level. The findings highlight an urgent need for more data on COVID-19 in Latin America.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e042122, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962849

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic carriers (AC) of the new SARS-CoV-2 represent an important source of spread for COVID-19. Early diagnosis of these cases is a powerful tool to control the pandemic. Our objective was to characterise patients with AC status and identify associated sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design and the national database of daily occurrence of COVID-19, we characterised both socially and demographically all ACs. Additional correspondence analysis and logistic regression model were performed to identify characteristics associated with AC state (OR, 95% CI). RESULTS: 76.162 ACs (12.1%; 95% CI 12.0% to 12.2%) were identified, mainly before epidemiological week 35. Age≤26 years (1.18; 1.09 to 1.28), male sex (1.51; 1.40 to 1.62), cases imported from Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, USA or Mexico (12.6; 3.03 to 52.5) and autochthonous cases (22.6; 5.62 to 91.4) increased the risk of identifying ACs. We also identified groups of departments with moderate (1.23; 1.13 to 1.34) and strong (19.8; 18.6 to 21.0) association with ACs. CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic characteristics strongly associated with AC were identified, which may explain its epidemiological relevance and usefulness to optimise mass screening strategies and prevent person-to-person transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/transmission , Colombia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Infect Genet Evol ; 86: 104616, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907154

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Venezuela and Colombia both adopted measures of containment early in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Venezuela's ongoing humanitarian crisis has decimated its health care system, and forced millions of Venezuelans to flee through its porous border with Colombia. The extensive shared border, and illegal cross-border transit through improvised trails between the two countries are major challenges for public health authorities. We report the first SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Venezuela, and present a snapshot of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiologic landscape in the Colombian-Venezuelan border region. METHODS: We sequenced and assembled viral genomes from total RNA extracted from nasopharyngeal (NP) clinical specimens using a custom reference-based analysis pipeline. Three assemblies obtained were subjected to typing using the Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak LINeages 'Pangolin' tool. A total of 376 publicly available SARS-CoV-2 genomes from South America were obtained from the GISAID database to perform comparative genomic analyses. Additionally, the Wuhan-1 strain was used as reference. RESULTS: We found that two of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Venezuela belonged to the B1 lineage, and the third to the B.1.13 lineage. We observed a point mutation in the Spike protein gene (D614G substitution), previously reported to be associated with increased infectivity, in all three Venezuelan genomes. Additionally, three mutations (R203K/G204R substitution) were present in the nucleocapsid (N) gene of one Venezuelan genome. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic sequencing demonstrates similarity between SARS-CoV-2 lineages from Venezuela and viruses collected from patients in bordering areas in Colombia and from Brazil, consistent with cross-border transit despite administrative measures including lockdowns. The presence of mutations associated with increased infectivity in the 3 Venezuelan genomes we report and Colombian SARS-CoV-2 genomes from neighboring borders areas may pose additional challenges for control of SARS-CoV-2 spread in the complex epidemiological landscape in Latin American countries. Public health authorities should carefully follow the progress of the pandemic and its impact on displaced populations within the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Colombia , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Venezuela
15.
Pathogens ; 9(7):580, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-652291

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in Wuhan (China) on December 2019, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread worldwide. After its arrival in South America in February 2020, the virus has expanded throughout the region, infecting over 900,000 individuals with approximately 41,000 reported deaths to date. In response to the rapidly growing number of cases, a number of different primer-probe sets have been developed. However, despite being highly specific, most of these primer-probe sets are known to exhibit variable sensitivity. Currently, there are more than 300 SARS-CoV2 whole genome sequences deposited in databases from Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru, and Argentina. To test how regional viral diversity may impact oligo binding sites and affect test performance, we reviewed all available primer-probe sets targeting the E, N, and RdRp genes against available South American SARS-CoV-2 genomes checking for nucleotide variations in annealing sites. Results from this in silico analysis showed no nucleotide variations on the E-gene target region, in contrast to the N and RdRp genes which showed massive nucleotide variations within oligo binding sites. In lines with previous data, our results suggest that the E-gene stands as the most conserved and reliable target when considering single-gene target testing for molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in South America.

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