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2.
Medizinische Klinik-Intensivmedizin Und Notfallmedizin ; 116(SUPPL 2):54-55, 2021.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1260320
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 267, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019818

ABSTRACT

Key questions in COVID-19 are the duration and determinants of infectious virus shedding. Here, we report that infectious virus shedding is detected by virus cultures in 23 of the 129 patients (17.8%) hospitalized with COVID-19. The median duration of shedding infectious virus is 8 days post onset of symptoms (IQR 5-11) and drops below 5% after 15.2 days post onset of symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.4-17.2). Multivariate analyses identify viral loads above 7 log10 RNA copies/mL (odds ratio [OR] of 14.7 (CI 3.57-58.1; p < 0.001) as independently associated with isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract. A serum neutralizing antibody titre of at least 1:20 (OR of 0.01 (CI 0.003-0.08; p < 0.001) is independently associated with non-infectious SARS-CoV-2. We conclude that quantitative viral RNA load assays and serological assays could be used in test-based strategies to discontinue or de-escalate infection prevention and control precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , RNA, Viral , Respiratory System/virology , Viral Load
4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20125310

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLong-term shedding of viral RNA in COVID-19 prevents timely discharge from the hospital or de-escalation of infection prevention and control practices. Key questions are the duration and determinants of infectious virus shedding. We assessed these questions using virus cultures of respiratory tract samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients as a proxy for infectious virus shedding. MethodsClinical and virological data were obtained from 129 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (89 intensive care, 40 medium care). Generalized estimating equations were used to identify if viral RNA load, detection of viral subgenomic RNA, serum neutralizing antibody response, duration of symptoms, or immunocompromised status were predictive for a positive virus culture. FindingsInfectious virus shedding was detected in 23 of the 129 patients (17,8%). The median duration of shedding was 8 days post onset of symptoms (IQR 5 - 11) and the probability of detecting infectious virus dropped below 5% after 15,2 days post onset of symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 13,4 - 17,2). Multivariate analyses identified viral loads above 7 log10 RNA copies/mL (odds ratio [OR]; CI 14,7 (3,57-58,1; p<0,001) as independently associated with isolation of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract. A serum neutralizing antibody titre of at least 1:20 (OR of 0,01 (CI 0,003-0,08; p<0,001) was independently associated with non-infectious SARS-CoV-2. InterpretationInfection prevention and control guidelines should take into account that patients with severe or critical COVID-19 may shed infectious virus for longer periods of time compared to what has been reported for in patients with mild COVID-19. Infectious virus shedding drops to undetectable levels below a viral RNA load threshold and once serum neutralizing antibodies are present, which warrants the use of quantitative viral RNA load assays and serological assays in test-based strategies to discontinue or de-escalate infection prevention and control precautions. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe searched PubMed, bioRxiv, and medRxiv for articles that reported on shedding of infectious virus in COVID-19 patients using the search terms ("coronavirus" OR "SARS" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19") AND ("shedding" OR "infectivity" OR "infectious" OR "virus culture") with no language or time restrictions. A detailed study on nine patients with mild COVID-19 reported that infectious virus could not be isolated after more than eight days of symptoms. The probability of isolating infectious virus was less than 5% when viral loads dropped below 6,51 Log10 RNA copies/mL. Similar results were obtained with a larger diagnostic sample set, but that study did not report on clinical parameters such as disease severity. Finally there is a report of a single patient shedding infectious virus up to 18 days after onset of symptoms. No published works were found on the shedding of infectious virus in patients with severe or critical COVID-19, and no published works were found on factors independently associated with shedding of infectious virus. Added value of this studyWe assessed the duration and determinants of infectious virus shedding in 129 patients with severe or critical COVID-19. The duration of infectious virus shedding ranged from 0 to 20 days post onset of symptoms (median 8 days, IQR 5 - 11). The probability of detecting infectious virus dropped below 5% after 15,2 days post onset of symptoms (95% confidence interval (CI) 13,4 - 17,2). Viral loads above 7 log10 RNA copies/mL were independently associated with detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract (odds ratio [OR]; CI 14,7 (3,57-58,1; p<0,001). A serum neutralizing antibody titre of at least 1:20 (OR of 0,01 (CI 0,003-0,08; p<0,001) was independently associated with non-infectious SARS-CoV-2. Implications of all the available evidenceInfection prevention and control guidelines should take into account that patients with severe or critical COVID-19 may shed infectious virus for longer periods of time compared to what has been reported for in patients with mild COVID-19. Quantitative viral RNA load assays and serological assays should be used for test-based strategies to discontinue or de-escalate infection prevention and control precautions.

5.
Transpl Int ; 33(9): 1099-1105, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381861

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be at risk for severe COVID-19. Data on the clinical course of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients are limited, and the effective treatment strategy for these patients is unknown. We describe our institutional experience with COVID-19 in SOT. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were extracted from the electronic patient files. A total of 23 SOT transplant recipients suffering from COVID-19 were identified (n = 3 heart; n = 15 kidney; n = 1 kidney-after-heart; n = 3 lung, and n = 1 liver transplant recipient). The presenting symptoms were similar to nonimmunocompromised patients. Eighty-three percent (19/23) of the patients required hospitalization, but only two of these were transferred to the intensive care unit. Five patients died from COVID-19; all had high Clinical Frailty Scores. In four of these patients, mechanical ventilation was deemed futile. In 57% of patients, the immunosuppressive therapy was not changed and only three patients were treated with chloroquine. Most patients recovered without experimental antiviral therapy. Modification of the immunosuppressive regimen alone could be a therapeutic option for SOT recipients suffering from moderate to severe COVID-19. Pre-existent frailty is associated with death from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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