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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5250, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764201

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone and tocilizumab have been associated with reduction in mortality, however, the beneficial effect is not for all patients and the impact on viral replication is not well defined. We hypostatized that C-reactive protein (CRP) could help in the identification of patients requiring anti-inflammatory therapy. Patients admitted for > 48 h in our hospital for a confirmed or suspected infection by SARS-CoV-2 from February 2020 to February 2021 were retrospectively evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality at 30 days. Demographics and the most relevant variables related with the outcome were included. CRP was stratified by percentiles. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. A total of 3218 patients were included with a median (IQR) age of 66 (74-78) years and 58.9% were males. The rate of intensive care unit admission was 24.4% and the 30-day mortality rate was 11.8%. Within the first 5 days from admission, 1018 (31.7%) patients received dexamethasone and 549 tocilizumab (17.1%). The crude analysis showed a mortality reduction in patients receiving dexamethasone when CRP was > 13.75 mg/dL and > 3.5 mg/dL for those receiving tocilizumab. Multivariate analysis identified the interaction of CRP > 13.75 mg/dL with dexamethasone (OR 0.57; CI 95% 0.37-0.89, P = 0014) and CRP > 3.5 mg/dL with tocilizumab (0.65; CI95%:0.44-0.95, P = 0.029) as independent predictors of mortality. Our results suggest that dexamethasone and tocilizumab are associated with a reduction in mortality when prescribed to patients with a certain inflammatory activity assessed by C-reactive protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Proteome Res ; 21(3): 623-634, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671479

ABSTRACT

Despite the scientific and human efforts to understand COVID-19, there are questions still unanswered. Variations in the metabolic reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection could explain the striking differences in the susceptibility to infection and the risk of severe disease. Here, we used untargeted metabolomics to examine novel metabolic pathways related to SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 clinical severity using capillary electrophoresis coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CE-TOF-MS) in plasma samples. We included 27 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 29 healthcare workers heavily exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but with low susceptibility to infection ("nonsusceptible"). We found a total of 42 metabolites of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility or COVID-19 clinical severity. We report the discovery of new plasma biomarkers for COVID-19 that provide mechanistic explanations for the clinical consequences of SARS-CoV-2, including mitochondrial and liver dysfunction as a consequence of hypoxemia (citrulline, citric acid, and 3-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA)), energy production and amino acid catabolism (phenylalanine and histidine), and endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis (citrulline, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and 2-aminobutyric acid (2-AB)), and we found interconnections between these pathways. In summary, in this first report several metabolic pathways implicated in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 clinical progression were found by CE-MS based metabolomics that could be developed as biomarkers of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Humans , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574883

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, we aimed to analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, risk factors for mortality and impact of COVID-19 on outcomes of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients compared to a cohort of non transplant patients, evaluating if transplantation could be considered a risk factor for mortality. From March to May 2020, 261 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated, including 41 SOT recipients. Of these, thirty-two were kidney recipients, 4 liver, 3 heart and 2 combined kidney-liver transplants. Median time from transplantation to COVID-19 diagnosis was 6 years. Thirteen SOT recipients (32%) required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and 5 patients died (12%). Using a propensity score match analysis, we found no significant differences between SOT recipients and non-transplant patients. Older age (OR 1.142; 95% [CI 1.08-1.197]) higher levels of C-reactive protein (OR 3.068; 95% [CI 1.22-7.71]) and levels of serum creatinine on admission (OR 3.048 95% [CI 1.22-7.57]) were associated with higher mortality. The clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our cohort of SOT recipients appear to be similar to that observed in the non-transplant population. Older age, higher levels of C-reactive protein and serum creatinine were associated with higher mortality, whereas SOT was not associated with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Organ Transplantation/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Allografts/physiology , Allografts/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Propensity Score , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spain/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526820

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we aimed to evaluate the impact of anti-cytokine therapies (AT) in kidney transplant recipients requiring hospitalization due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This is an observational retrospective study, which included patients from March to May 2020. An inverse probability of treatment weighting from a propensity score to receive AT was used in all statistical analyses, and we applied a bootstrap procedure in order to calculate an estimation of the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of odds ratio (OR). outcomes were measured using an ordinal scale determination (OSD). A total of 33 kidney recipients required hospitalization and 54% of them received at least one AT, mainly tocilizumab (42%), followed by anakinra (12%). There was no statistical effect in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, respiratory secondary infections (35% vs. 7%) or mortality (16% vs. 13%) comparing patients that received AT with those who did not. Nevertheless, patients who received AT presented better outcomes during hospitalization in terms of OSD ≥5 ((OR 0.31; 2.5th, 97.5th percentiles (0.10; 0.72)). These analyses indicate, as a plausible hypothesis, that the use of AT in kidney transplant recipients presenting with COVID-19 could be beneficial, even though multicenter randomized control trials using these therapies in transplanted patients are needed.

6.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 34: 35-37, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474898

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus associated with immune dysregulation. The use of immunosuppressant drugs as part of COVID-19 treatment (such as Tocilizumab or high -dose corticosteroids) increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Here we present a case of a patient without prior immunosuppression that developed a serious fungal infection after the use of high dose corticosteroids in the setting of severe COVID-19 and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia.

7.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(12): 3296-3302, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of remdesivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the time to recovery in patients with COVID-19. However, the impact on mortality is still controversial. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate whether there is a specific subgroup of patients in whom an active antiviral therapy also reduces the mortality. METHODS: Patients admitted for >48 h in our hospital for a SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected infection from February 2020 to February 2021 were retrospectively analysed. The primary outcome of the study was mortality at 30 days. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of mortality. RESULTS: In total, 2607 patients (438 receiving remdesivir and 2169 not) were included with a median (IQR) age of 65 (54-77) years and 58% were male. Four hundred and seventy-six were admitted to the ICU (18.3%) and 264 required invasive mechanical ventilation (10.1%). The global 30 day mortality rate was 10.7%. Pre-admission symptom duration of 4-6 days and ≤3 days was associated with a 1.5- and 2.5-fold increase in the mortality rate, respectively, in comparison with >6 days and treatment with remdesivir was independently associated with a lower mortality rate (OR = 0.382, 95% CI = 0.218-0.671). The analysis showed that the major difference was among patients with shorter pre-admission symptom duration (<6 days). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ≤3 days and 4-6 days from symptom onset to admission are associated with a 2.5- and 1.5-fold higher risk of death, respectively. Remdesivir was associated with 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care and its survival benefit increased with shorter duration of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(1): 36-45, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) infections have been occasionally described in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). We assess the clinical features and outcome of these infections. METHODS: In this retrospective single-centre, case-control study, we included 54 patients with CPE infection: 30 case-patients (COVID-19) and 24 controls (non-COVID-19), collected between March and May 2020. We compared the epidemiological, clinical features, and outcome between cases and controls. RESULTS: CPE infection was more frequent in COVID-19 patients than in controls (1.1 vs. 0.5%, p = .005). COVID-19 patients were younger, had a lower frequency of underlying diseases (p = .01), and a lower median Charlson score (p = .002). Predisposing factors such as antimicrobial use, mechanical ventilation, or ICU admission, were more frequent in COVID-19 patients (p < .05). There were 73 episodes of infection (42 cases and 31 controls) that were more frequently hospital-acquired and diagnosed at the ICU in COVID-19 patients (p < .001). Urinary tract was the most common source of infection (47.9%), followed by pneumonia (23.3%). The frequency of severe sepsis or shock (p = .01) as well as the median SOFA score (p = .04) was higher in cases than in controls. Klebsiella pneumoniae (80.8%), Serratia marcescens (11%) and Enterobacter cloacae (4.1%) were the most common bacteria in both groups (KPC 56.2%, OXA-48 26% and VIM 17.8%). Overall 30-d mortality rate of COVID-19 patients and controls was 30 and 16.7%, respectively (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients have an increased risk of CPE infections, which usually present as severe, nosocomial infections, appearing in critically-ill patients and associated with a high mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Bacterial Proteins , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Coinfection , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Retrospective Studies , Serratia marcescens , beta-Lactamases
9.
Am J Transplant ; 21(12): 3971-3979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320381

ABSTRACT

Recently published studies have found an impaired immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in solid organ recipients. However, most of these studies have not assessed immune cellular responses in liver and heart transplant recipients. We prospectively studied heart and liver transplant recipients eligible for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Patients with past history of SARS-CoV-2 infection or SARS-CoV-2 detectable antibodies (IgM or IgG) were excluded. We assessed IgM/IgG antibodies and ELISpot against the S protein 4 weeks after receiving the second dose of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. Side effects, troponin I, liver tests and anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies (DSA) were also assessed. A total of 58 liver and 46 heart recipients received two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Median time from transplantation to vaccination was 5.4 years (IQR 0.3-27). Sixty-four percent of the patients developed SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies and 79% S-ELISpot positivity. Ninety percent of recipients developed either humoral or cellular response (87% in heart recipients and 93% in liver recipients). Factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness were hypogammaglobulinemia and vaccination during the first year after transplantation. Local and systemic side effects were mild or moderate, and none presented DSA or graft dysfunction after vaccination. Ninety percent of our patients did develop humoral or cellular responses to mRNA-1273 vaccine. Factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness were hypogammaglobulinemia and vaccination during the first year after transplantation, highlighting the need to further protect these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Liver , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
10.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(4): e13652, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276777

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predisposes patients to bacterial and fungal superinfections due to the impairment of the immunological system. Among the associated opportunistic fungal infections, mucormycosis is one of the least frequent but with the highest mortality. We describe two cases of mucormycosis in two kidney transplant recipients, while they were hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, with rhinosinusal and musculoskeletal involvement, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Mucormycosis , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
11.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2727-2739, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243589

ABSTRACT

According to preliminary data, seroconversion after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination might be unsatisfactory in Kidney Transplant Recipients (KTRs). However, it is unknown if seronegative patients develop at least a cellular response that could offer a certain grade of protection against SARS-CoV-2. To answer this question, we prospectively studied 148 recipients of either kidney (133) or kidney-pancreas (15) grafts with assessment of IgM/IgG spike (S) antibodies and ELISpot against the nucleocapside (N) and the S protein at baseline and 2 weeks after receiving the second dose of the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. At baseline, 31 patients (20.9%) had either IgM/IgG or ELISpot positivity and were considered to be SARS-CoV-2-pre-immunized, while 117 (79.1%) patients had no signs of either cellular or humoral response and were considered SARS-CoV-2-naïve. After vaccination, naïve patients who developed either humoral or cellular response were finally 65.0%, of which 29.9% developed either IgG or IgM and 35.0% S-ELISpot positivity. Factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness were diabetes and treatment with antithymocytes globulins during the last year. Side effects were consistent with that of the pivotal trial and no DSAs developed after vaccination. In conclusion, mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicits either cellular or humoral response in almost two thirds of KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 493-496, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127287

ABSTRACT

We aim to evaluate the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included 28 uninfected but highly exposed healthcare workers and 39 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Thirty-five SNPs were rationally selected. Two variants were associated with increased risk of being susceptible to SARS-CoV-2: the minor A allele in the rs2106806 variant (OR 3.75 [95% CI 1.23-11.43]) and the minor T allele in the rs6629110 variant (OR 3.39 [95% CI 1.09-10.56]). Evaluating the role of genetic variants in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection could help identify more vulnerable individuals and suggest potential drug targets for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Health Personnel , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(2): 238-243, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tocilizumab has been proposed as a candidate therapy for patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially among those with higher systemic inflammation. We investigated the association between receipt of tocilizumab and mortality in a large cohort of hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain, the primary outcome was time to death and the secondary outcome time to intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. We used inverse probability weighting to fit marginal structural models adjusted for time-varying covariates to determine the causal relationship between receipt of tocilizumab and outcome. RESULTS: Data from 1229 patients were analysed, with 261 patients (61 deaths) in the tocilizumab group and 969 patients (120 deaths) in the control group. In the adjusted marginal structural models, a significant interaction between receipt of tocilizumab and high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels was detected. Tocilizumab was associated with decreased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.72, p 0.005) and ICU admission or death (adjusted hazard ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.80, p 0.011) among patients with baseline CRP >150 mg/L but not among those with CRP ≤150 mg/L. Exploratory subgroup analyses yielded point estimates that were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational study, tocilizumab was associated with a lower risk of death or ICU admission or death in patients with higher CRP levels. While the results of ongoing clinical trials of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 will be important to establish its safety and efficacy, our findings have implications for the design of future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
15.
Drug Dev Res ; 81(7): 771-776, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-263091

ABSTRACT

In this communication, we present arguments for androgen sensitivity as a likely determinant of COVID-19 disease severity. The androgen sensitivity model explains why males are more likely to develop severe symptoms while children are ostensibly resistant to infection. Further, the model explains the difference in COVID-19 mortality rates among different ethnicities. Androgen sensitivity is determined by genetic variants of the androgen receptor. The androgen receptor regulates transcription of the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), which is required for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. TMPRSS2 primes the Spike protein of the virus, which has two consequences: diminishing viral recognition by neutralizing antibodies and activating SARS-CoV-2 for virus-cell fusion. Genetic variants that have been associated with androgenetic alopecia, prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome could be associated with host susceptibility. In addition to theoretical epidemiological and molecular mechanisms, there are reports of high rates of androgenetic alopecia of from hospitalized COVID-19 patients due to severe symptoms. Androgen sensitivity is a likely determinant of COVID-19 disease severity. We believe that the evidence presented in this communication warrants the initiation of trials using anti-androgen agents.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Alopecia/genetics , Alopecia/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Male , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
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