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1.
Revista espanola de cardiologia ; 2022.
Article in Spanish | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624085

ABSTRACT

Introducción y objetivos: Las secuelas cardiacas tras la infección por SARS-CoV-2 todavía están poco documentadas. Se realizó un estudio transversal en trabajadores sanitarios para estudiar la prevalencia de afección pericárdica y miocárdica tras la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Métodos: Se estudió a 139 trabajadores sanitarios con infección previa por SARS-CoV-2 confirmada. Los participantes se sometieron a evaluación clínica, electrocardiograma, pruebas de laboratorio que incluyeron el perfil de células inmunitarias y resonancia magnética cardiaca (RMC). El diagnóstico clínico de pericarditis se realizó según los criterios clásicos y el diagnóstico clínico de miocarditis, ante la presencia de al menos 2 criterios en la RMC. Resultados: La mediana de edad fue 52 (intervalo, 41-57) años, el 71,9% eran mujeres y el 16,5% se había hospitalizado previamente por neumonía por COVID-19. En la evaluación (10,4 [9,3-11,0] semanas después de los síntomas de infección), todos los participantes presentaban estabilidad hemodinámica. El 41,7% tenía dolor torácico, disnea o palpitaciones;el 49,6%, alteraciones electrocardiográficas;el 7,9%, elevación de NT-proBNP;el 0,7%, elevación de troponina y el 60,4%, alteraciones en la RMC. El 30,9% de los participantes cumplían los criterios clínicos establecidos de pericarditis o miocarditis: pericarditis aislada en el 5,8%, miopericarditis en el 7,9% y miocarditis aislada en el 17,3%. La mayoría de los participantes (73,2%) mostraron recuentos alterados de células inmunitarias en sangre, en particular diminución de eosinófilos (27,3%;p < 0,001) y aumento del número de células T citotóxicas (17,3%;p < 0,001). La sospecha clínica de pericarditis se asoció (p < 0,005) particularmente con un elevado número de células T citotóxicas y recuento de eosinófilos disminuido, mientras que los participantes con sospecha clínica de miopericarditis o miocarditis tenían recuentos de neutrófilos, células natural killer y células plasmáticas más bajos (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: La afección pericárdica y miocárdica con estabilidad hemodinámica es frecuente después de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 y se asocia con perfiles de células inmunitarias específicas.

2.
Rev Esp Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620990

ABSTRACT

Introduction and objectives The cardiac sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection are still poorly documented. We conducted a cross-sectional study in healthcare workers to report evidence of pericardial and myocardial involvement after SARS-CoV-2 infection.Methods We studied 139 healthcare workers with confirmed past SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants underwent clinical assessment, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including immune cell profiling and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Clinically suspected pericarditis was diagnosed when classic criteria were present and clinically suspected myocarditis was based on the combination of at least 2 CMR criteria.Results Median age was 52 (41-57) years, 71.9% were women, and 16.5% were previously hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. On examination (10.4 [9.3-11.0] weeks after infection-like symptoms), participants showed hemodynamic stability. Chest pain, dyspnea or palpitations were present in 41.7% participants, electrocardiographic abnormalities in 49.6%, NT-proBNP elevation in 7.9%, troponin in 0.7%, and CMR abnormalities in 60.4%. A total of 30.9% participants met criteria for either pericarditis and/or myocarditis: isolated pericarditis was diagnosed in 5.8%, myopericarditis in 7.9%, and isolated myocarditis in 17.3%. Most participants (73.2%) showed altered immune cell counts in blood, particularly decreased eosinophil (27.3%; P < .001) and increased cytotoxic T cell numbers (17.3%; P < .001). Clinically suspected pericarditis was associated (P < .005) with particularly elevated cytotoxic T cells and decreased eosinophil counts, while participants diagnosed with clinically suspected myopericarditis or myocarditis had lower (P < .05) neutrophil counts, natural killer-cells, and plasma cells.Conclusions Pericardial and myocardial involvement with clinical stability are frequent after SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with specific immune cell profiles.

3.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296904

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a frequent manifestation of COVID-19 in hospitalized children. Methods The study involved 80 hospitals in the SARS-CoV-2 Spanish Pediatric National Cohort. Participants were children <18 years, hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We compared the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP with CAP due to other viral etiologies from 2012 to 2019. Results In total, 151 children with SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP and 138 with other viral CAP included. Main clinical features of SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP were cough 117/151(77%), fever 115/151(76%) and dyspnea 63/151(46%);22/151(15%) patients were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and 5/151(3%) patients died. Lymphopenia was found in 63/147(43%) patients. Chest X-ray revealed condensation (64/151[42%]) and other infiltrates (87/151[58%]). Compared with CAP from other viral pathogens, COVID-19 patients were older (8 vs.1 year;odds ratio [OR] 1.42 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.23;1.42]), with lower CRP levels (23 vs.48 mg/L;OR 1 [95%CI 0.99;1]), less wheezing (17 vs.53%;OR 0.18 [95%CI 0.11;0.31]) and greater need of mechanical ventilation, MV (7 vs.0.7%, OR 10.8 [95%CI 1.3;85). Patients with non-SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP had a greater need for oxygen therapy (77 vs.44%, OR 0.24 [95%CI 0.14;0.40]). There were no differences in the use of CPAP or HVF or PICU admission between groups. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2-associated CAP in children presents differently to other virus-associated CAP: children are older and rarely have wheezing or high CRP levels;they need less oxygen but more CPAP or MV. However, several features overlap, and differentiating the etiology may be difficult. The overall prognosis is good.

4.
J Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the time to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity after the first positive RT-PCR test, factors associated with longer time to RT-PCR negativity, proportion of children seroconverting after proven severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and factors associated with the lack of seroconversion. STUDY DESIGN: The Epidemiological Study of Coronavirus in Children of the Spanish Society of Pediatrics is a multicenter study conducted in Spanish children to assess the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019. In a subset of patients, 3 serial RT-PCR tests on nasopharyngeal swab specimens were performed after the first RT-PCR test, and immunoglobulin G serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibodies was performed in the acute and follow-up (<14 and ≥14 days after diagnosis) phase. RESULTS: In total, 324 patients were included in the study. The median time to RT-PCR negativity was 17 days (IQR, 8-29 days), and 35% of patients remained positive more than 4 weeks after the first RT-PCR test. The probability of RT-PCR negativity did not differ across groups defined by sex, disease severity, immunosuppressive drugs, or clinical phenotype. Globally, 24% of children failed to seroconvert after infection. Seroconversion was associated with hospitalization, persistence of RT-PCR positivity, and days of fever. CONCLUSIONS: Time to RT-PCR negativity was long, regardless of the severity of symptoms or other patient features. This finding should be considered when interpreting RT-PCR results in a child with symptoms, especially those with mild symptoms. Seroprevalence and postimmunization studies should consider that 11 in 4 infected children fail to seroconvert.

5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504861

ABSTRACT

We aimed to identify the spectrum of disease in children with COVID-19, and the risk factors for admission in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We conducted a multicentre, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 76 Spanish hospitals. We included children with COVID-19 or multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) younger than 18 years old, attended during the first year of the pandemic. We enrolled 1200 children. A total of 666 (55.5%) were hospitalised, and 123 (18.4%) required admission to PICU. Most frequent major clinical syndromes in the cohort were mild syndrome (including upper respiratory tract infection and flu-like syndrome, skin or mucosae problems and asymptomatic), 44.8%; bronchopulmonary syndrome (including pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma flare), 18.5%; fever without a source, 16.2%; MIS-C, 10.6%; and gastrointestinal syndrome, 10%. In hospitalised children, the proportions were 28.5%, 25.7%, 16.5%, 19.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Risk factors associated with PICU admission were age in months (OR: 1.007; 95% CI 1.004 to 1.01), MIS-C (OR: 14.4, 95% CI 8.9 to 23.8), chronic cardiac disease (OR: 4.8, 95% CI 1.8 to 13), asthma or recurrent wheezing (OR: 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) and after excluding MIS-C patients, moderate/severe liver disease (OR: 8.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 47.6). However, asthmatic children were admitted into the PICU due to MIS-C or pneumonia, not due to asthma flare.Conclusion: Hospitalised children with COVID-19 usually present as one of five major clinical phenotypes of decreasing severity. Risk factors for PICU include MIS-C, elevation of inflammation biomarkers, asthma, moderate or severe liver disease and cardiac disease. What is Known: • All studies suggest that children are less susceptible to serious SARS-CoV-2 infection when compared to adults. Most studies describe symptoms at presentation. However, it remains unclear how these symptoms group together into clinically identifiable syndromes and the severity associated with them. What is New: • We have gathered the primary diagnoses into five major syndromes of decreasing severity: MIS-C, bronchopulmonary syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, fever without a source and mild syndrome. Classification of the children in one of the syndromes is unique and helps to assess the risk of critical illness and to define the spectrum of the disease instead of just describing symptoms and signs.

6.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The cardiac sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection are still poorly documented. We conducted a cross-sectional study in healthcare workers to report evidence of pericardial and myocardial involvement after SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We studied 139 healthcare workers with confirmed past SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants underwent clinical assessment, electrocardiography, and laboratory tests, including immune cell profiling and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Clinically suspected pericarditis was diagnosed when classic criteria were present and clinically suspected myocarditis was based on the combination of at least 2 CMR criteria. RESULTS: Median age was 52 (41-57) years, 71.9% were women, and 16.5% were previously hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. On examination (10.4 [9.3-11.0] weeks after infection-like symptoms), participants showed hemodynamic stability. Chest pain, dyspnea or palpitations were present in 41.7% participants, electrocardiographic abnormalities in 49.6%, NT-proBNP elevation in 7.9%, troponin in 0.7%, and CMR abnormalities in 60.4%. A total of 30.9% participants met criteria for either pericarditis and/or myocarditis: isolated pericarditis was diagnosed in 5.8%, myopericarditis in 7.9%, and isolated myocarditis in 17.3%. Most participants (73.2%) showed altered immune cell counts in blood, particularly decreased eosinophil (27.3%; P<.001) and increased cytotoxic T cell numbers (17.3%; P <.001). Clinically suspected pericarditis was associated (P <.005) with particularly elevated cytotoxic T cells and decreased eosinophil counts, while participants diagnosed with clinically suspected myopericarditis or myocarditis had lower (P <.05) neutrophil counts, natural killer-cells, and plasma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pericardial and myocardial involvement with clinical stability are frequent after SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with specific immune cell profiles.

7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(8): e287-e293, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify risk factors causing critical disease in hospitalized children with COVID-19 and to build a predictive model to anticipate the probability of need for critical care. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective study of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 52 Spanish hospitals. The primary outcome was the need for critical care. We used a multivariable Bayesian model to estimate the probability of needing critical care. RESULTS: The study enrolled 350 children from March 12, 2020, to July 1, 2020: 292 (83.4%) and 214 (73.7%) were considered to have relevant COVID-19, of whom 24.2% required critical care. Four major clinical syndromes of decreasing severity were identified: multi-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (17.3%), bronchopulmonary (51.4%), gastrointestinal (11.6%), and mild syndrome (19.6%). Main risk factors were high C-reactive protein and creatinine concentration, lymphopenia, low platelets, anemia, tachycardia, age, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and low oxygen saturation. These risk factors increased the risk of critical disease depending on the syndrome: the more severe the syndrome, the more risk the factors conferred. Based on our findings, we developed an online risk prediction tool (https://rserver.h12o.es/pediatria/EPICOAPP/, username: user, password: 0000). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include inflammation, cytopenia, age, comorbidities, and organ dysfunction. The more severe the syndrome, the more the risk factor increases the risk of critical illness. Risk of severe disease can be predicted with a Bayesian model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
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