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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329045

ABSTRACT

Structural features and the heterogeneity of disease transmissions play an essential role in the dynamics of epidemic spread. But these aspects can not completely be assessed from aggregate data or macroscopic indicators such as the effective reproduction number. We propose an index of effective aggregate dispersion (EffDI) that indicates the significance of infection clusters and superspreading events in the progression of outbreaks by carefully measuring the level of stochasticity in time series of reported case numbers. This allows to detect the transition from predominantly clustered spreading to a diffusive regime with diminishing significance of singular clusters, which can be decisive for the future progression of outbreaks and relevant in the planning of containment measures. We evaluate EffDI for SARS-CoV-2 case data in different countries and compare the results with a quantifier for the socio-demographic heterogeneity in disease transmissions in a case study to substantiate that EffDI qualifies as a measure for the heterogeneity in transmission dynamics.

3.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(11): 894-899, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440494

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has both exposed and intensified various challenges for Public Health and the Public Health service (ÖGD) in Germany. However, it also offers a window of opportunity for effective long-term transformation of the country's Public Health system. Against this backdrop, an online survey was carried out among the members of the German Network of Young Professionals in Public Health (Nachwuchsnetzwerk Öffentliche Gesundheit (NÖG)) in October and November 2020. It sought to elicit members' experiences and views related to Public Health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The resulting preliminary "lessons learned" for the German Public Health context are presented in this article. Based on the results of the survey, recommendations were formulated which are intended to provide targeted and concrete advice for the strengthening and transformation of Public Health in Germany. The main issues that preoccupied the young professionals were the increased public and political attention to Public Health and the narrow focus on infectious disease control, the standing of Public Health in Germany and the strengths and weaknesses of Public Health structures and workforce. The recommendations are aimed at promoting long-term and holistic strengthening of Public Health, with the training of an interdisciplinary workforce of young professionals presenting a key focus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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