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1.
J Hosp Med ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the increased availability of diagnostic tests for respiratory viruses, their clinical utility for children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To identify patterns of respiratory virus testing across children's hospitals prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and to determine whether hospital-level rates of viral testing were associated with clinical outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Multicenter retrospective cohort study of children hospitalized for CAP at 19 children's hospitals in the United States from 2010-2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Using a novel method to identify the performance of viral testing, we assessed time trends in the use of viral tests, both overall and stratified by testing method. Adjusted proportions of encounters with viral testing were compared across hospitals and were correlated with length of stay, antibiotic and oseltamivir use, and performance of ancillary laboratory testing. RESULTS: There were 46,038 hospitalizations for non-severe CAP among children without complex chronic conditions. The proportion with viral testing increased from 38.8% to 44.2% during the study period (P < .001). Molecular testing increased (27.2% to 40.0%, P < .001) and antigen testing decreased (33.2% to 7.8%, P < .001). Hospital-specific adjusted proportions of testing ranged from 10.0% to 83.5% and were not associated with length of stay, antibiotic use, or antiviral use. Hospitals that performed more viral testing did not have lower rates of ancillary laboratory testing. CONCLUSIONS: Viral testing practices varied widely across children's hospitals and were not associated with clinically important process or outcome measures. Viral testing may not influence clinical management for many children hospitalized with CAP.

2.
Pediatrics ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 treatment guidelines rapidly evolved during the pandemic. The December 2020 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline, endorsed by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, recommended steroids for critical disease, and suggested steroids and remdesivir for severe disease. We evaluated how medications for children hospitalized with COVID-19 changed after guideline publication. METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of children ages 30 days to <18 years hospitalized with acute COVID-19 at 42 tertiary care US children's hospitals April 2020 - December 2021. We compared medication use before and after the December 2020 IDSA guideline (pre- and post-guideline) stratified by COVID-19 disease severity (mild-moderate, severe, critical) with interrupted time series. RESULTS: Among 18,364 patients who met selection criteria, 80.3% were discharged in the post-guideline period. Remdesivir and steroid use increased post-guideline relative to the pre-guideline period, although the trend slowed. Post-guideline, among patients with severe disease, 75.4% received steroids and 55.2% remdesivir, and in those with critical disease, 82.4% received steroids and 41.4% remdesivir. Compared to pre-guideline, enoxaparin use increased overall but decreased among patients with critical disease. Post-guideline, tocilizumab use increased and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, anakinra, and antibiotic use decreased. Antibiotic use remained high in severe (51.7%) and critical disease (81%). CONCLUSIONS: Although utilization of COVID-19 medications changed following December 2020 IDSA guidelines, there was a decline in uptake and incomplete adherence for children with severe and critical disease. Efforts should enhance reliable delivery of guideline-directed therapies to children hospitalized with COVID-19 and assess their effectiveness.

3.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(4): 337-353, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although pediatric health care use declined during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the impact on children with complex chronic conditions (CCCs) has not been well reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of the pandemic on inpatient use and outcomes for children with CCCs. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study used data from the Pediatric Health Information System. We examined trends in admissions between January 2020 through March 2021, comparing them to the same timeframe in the previous 3 years (pre-COVID-19). We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the association of the COVID-19 period and outcomes for children with CCCs presenting between March 16, 2020 to March 15, 2021 (COVID-19 period) to the same timeframe in the previous 3 years (pre-COVID-19). RESULTS: Children with CCCs experienced a 19.5% overall decline in admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Declines began in the second week of March of 2020, reaching a nadir in early April 2020. Changes in admissions varied over time and by admission indication. Children with CCCs hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis experienced overall declines in admissions of 49.7% to 57.7%, whereas children with CCCs hospitalized for diabetes experienced overall increases in admissions of 21.2%. Total and index length of stay, costs, and ICU use, although statistically higher during the COVID-19 period, were similar overall to the pre-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: Total admissions for children with CCCs declined nearly 20% during the pandemic. Among prevalent conditions, the greatest declines were observed for children with CCCs hospitalized with respiratory illnesses. Despite declines in admissions, overall hospital-level outcomes remained similar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab662, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672246

ABSTRACT

We compared antibiotic prescribing before and during the -coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at 2 academic urgent care clinics and found a sustained decrease in prescribing driven by respiratory encounters and despite transitioning to telemedicine. Antibiotics were rarely prescribed during encounters for COVID-19 or COVID-19 symptoms. COVID-19 revealed opportunities for outpatient stewardship programs.

5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(5): 177-185, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Starting in November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for multiple novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, including bamlanivimab monotherapy (now revoked), bamlanivimab and etesivimab, casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV), and sotrovimab, for treatment or postexposure prophylaxis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents (≥12 years of age) and adults with certain high-risk conditions. Previous guidance is now updated based on new evidence and clinical experience. METHODS: A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacotherapy, and pediatric critical care medicine from 18 geographically diverse US institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on a review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild, though more severe disease is occasionally observed. Evidence supporting risk stratification is incomplete. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific monoclonal antibody therapies in adults, but data on safety and efficacy in children or adolescents are limited. Potential harms associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis are reportedly low in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Based on evidence available as of August 31, 2021, the panel suggests a risk-based approach to administration of SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Therapy is suggested for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adolescents (≥12 years of age) at the highest risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Therapeutic decision-making about those at moderate risk of severe disease should be individualized. Use as postexposure prophylaxis could be considered for those at the highest risk who have a high-risk exposure but are not yet diagnosed with COVID-19. Clinicians and health systems should ensure safe and timely implementation of these therapeutics that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Drug Combinations , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Hosp Med ; 16(10): 603-610, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the clinical factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study across 45 US children's hospitals between April 2020 to September 2020 of pediatric patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed factors associated with hospitalization and factors associated with clinical severity (eg, admission to inpatient floor, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], admission to ICU with mechanical ventilation, shock, death) among those hospitalized. RESULTS: Among 19,976 COVID-19 encounters, 15,913 (79.7%) patients were discharged from the emergency department (ED) and 4063 (20.3%) were hospitalized. The clinical severity distribution among those hospitalized was moderate (3222, 79.3%), severe (431, 11.3%), and very severe (380, 9.4%). Factors associated with hospitalization vs discharge from the ED included private payor insurance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR],1.16; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) (aOR, 10.4; 95% CI, 8.9-13.3), asthma (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6), cardiovascular disease, (aOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 4.3- 5.8), immunocompromised condition (aOR, 5.9; 95% CI, 5.0-6.7), pulmonary disease (aOR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.4-8.2), and neurologic disease (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.7-5.8). Among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19, greater disease severity was associated with Black or other non-White race; age greater than 4 years; and obesity/type 2 DM, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and pulmonary conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents presenting to US children's hospital EDs with COVID-19, 20% were hospitalized; of these, 21% received care in the ICU. Older children and adolescents had a lower risk for hospitalization but more severe illness when hospitalized. There were differences in disease severity by race and ethnicity and the presence of selected comorbidities. These factors should be taken into consideration when prioritizing mitigation and vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(5): 629-634, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided Emergency Use Authorizations (EUA) for 2 novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, bamlanivimab and REGN-COV2 (casirivimab plus imdevimab), for the treatment of mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents and adults in specified high-risk groups. This has challenged clinicians to determine the best approach to use of these products. METHODS: A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacy, pediatric intensive care medicine, and pediatric hematology from 29 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild and there is no high-quality evidence supporting any high-risk groups. There is no evidence for safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, limited evidence of modest benefit in adults, and evidence for potential harm associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: Based on evidence available as of December 20, 2020, the panel suggests against routine administration of monoclonal antibody therapy (bamlanivimab, or casirivimab and imdevimab), for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, including those designated by the FDA as at high risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Clinicians and health systems choosing to use these agents on an individualized basis should consider risk factors supported by pediatric-specific evidence and ensure the implementation of a system for safe and timely administration that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(21): 785-791, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248454

ABSTRACT

Cessation of kindergarten through grade 12 in-person instruction and extracurricular activities, which has often occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, can have negative social, emotional, and educational consequences for children (1,2). Although preventive measures such as masking, physical distancing, hand hygiene, and improved ventilation are commonly used in schools to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and support in-person instruction (3-6), routine school-based COVID-19 testing has not been as widely implemented. In addition to these types of standard preventive measures, Utah health and school partners implemented two high school testing programs to sustain extracurricular activities and in-person instruction and help identify SARS-CoV-2 infections: 1) Test to Play,* in which testing every 14 days was mandated for participation in extracurricular activities; and 2) Test to Stay,† which involved school-wide testing to continue in-person instruction as an alternative to transitioning to remote instruction if a school crossed a defined outbreak threshold (3). During November 30, 2020-March 20, 2021, among 59,552 students tested through these programs, 1,886 (3.2%) received a positive result. Test to Play was implemented at 127 (66%) of Utah's 193 public high schools and facilitated completion of approximately 95% of scheduled high school extracurricular winter athletics competition events.§ Test to Stay was conducted at 13 high schools, saving an estimated 109,752 in-person instruction student-days.¶ School-based COVID-19 testing should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy to help identify SARS-CoV-2 infections in schools and sustain in-person instruction and extracurricular activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Schools/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Utah/epidemiology
10.
Pediatrics ; 147(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to changes in health care use, including decreased emergency department visits for children. In this study, we sought to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on inpatient use within children's hospitals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using the Pediatric Health Information System. We compared inpatient use and clinical outcomes for children 0 to 18 years of age during the COVID-19 period (March 15 to August 29, 2020) to the same time frame in the previous 3 years (pre-COVID-19 period). Adjusted generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association of the pandemic period with inpatient use. We assessed trends overall and for a subgroup of 15 medical All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups (APR-DRGs). RESULTS: We identified 424 856 hospitalizations (mean: 141 619 hospitalizations per year) in the pre-COVID-19 period and 91 532 in the COVID-19 period. Compared with the median number of hospitalizations in the pre-COVID-19 period, we observed declines in hospitalizations overall (35.1%), and by APR-DRG (range: 8.5%-81.3%) with asthma (81.3%), bronchiolitis (80.1%), and pneumonia (71.4%) experiencing the greatest declines. Overall readmission rates were lower during the COVID-19 period; however, other outcomes, including length of stay, cost, ICU use, and mortality remained similar to the pre-COVID-19 period with some variability by APR-DRGs. CONCLUSIONS: US children's hospitals observed substantial reductions in inpatient admissions with largely unchanged hospital-level outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the impact on use varied by condition, the most notable declines were related to inpatient admissions for respiratory conditions, including asthma, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Hospitals, Pediatric/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Linear Models , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 557-559, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187180

ABSTRACT

During December 3, 2020-January 31, 2021, CDC, in collaboration with the University of Utah Health and Economic Recovery Outreach Project,* Utah Department of Health (UDOH), Salt Lake County Health Department, and one Salt Lake county school district, offered free, in-school, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) saliva testing as part of a transmission investigation of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in elementary school settings. School contacts† of persons with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including close contacts, were eligible to participate (1). Investigators approached parents or guardians of student contacts by telephone, and during January, using school phone lines to offer in-school specimen collection; the testing procedures were explained in the preferred language of the parent or guardian. Consent for participants was obtained via an electronic form sent by e-mail. Analyses examined participation (i.e., completing in-school specimen collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing) in relation to factors§ that were programmatically important or could influence likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 testing, including race, ethnicity, and SARS-CoV-2 incidence in the community (2). Crude prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using univariate log-binomial regression.¶ This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with federal law and CDC policy.*.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Contact Tracing , Humans , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Utah/epidemiology
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(12): 442-448, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151034

ABSTRACT

School closures affected more than 55 million students across the United States when implemented as a strategy to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Reopening schools requires balancing the risks for SARS-CoV-2 infection to students and staff members against the benefits of in-person learning (2). During December 3, 2020-January 31, 2021, CDC investigated SARS-CoV-2 transmission in 20 elementary schools (kindergarten through grade 6) that had reopened in Salt Lake County, Utah. The 7-day cumulative number of new COVID-19 cases in Salt Lake County during this time ranged from 290 to 670 cases per 100,000 persons.† Susceptible§ school contacts¶ (students and staff members exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in school) of 51 index patients** (40 students and 11 staff members) were offered SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Among 1,041 susceptible school contacts, 735 (70.6%) were tested, and five of 12 cases identified were classified as school-associated; the secondary attack rate among tested susceptible school contacts was 0.7%. Mask use among students was high (86%), and the median distance between students' seats in classrooms was 3 ft. Despite high community incidence and an inability to maintain ≥6 ft of distance between students at all times, SARS-CoV-2 transmission was low in these elementary schools. The results from this investigation add to the increasing evidence that in-person learning can be achieved with minimal SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk when multiple measures to prevent transmission are implemented (3,4).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Schools/organization & administration , Utah/epidemiology
13.
J Hosp Med ; 16(5): 294-297, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140803

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 public health interventions on pediatric illnesses nationwide is unknown. We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional study of encounters at 44 children's hospitals in the United States to assess changes in healthcare utilization during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with substantial reductions in encounters for respiratory diseases; these large reductions were consistent across illness subgroups. Although encounters for nonrespiratory diseases decreased as well, reductions were more modest and varied by age. Encounters for respiratory diseases among adolescents declined to a lesser degree and returned to previous levels faster compared with those of younger children. Further study is needed to determine the contributions of decreased illness and changes in care-seeking behavior to this observed reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(1): 34-48, 2021 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081066

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild infection in most children, a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Data describing agents with potential antiviral activity continue to expand such that updated guidance is needed regarding use of these agents in children. METHODS: A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: Given the typically mild course of COVID-19 in children, supportive care alone is suggested for most cases. For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. A duration of 5 days is appropriate for most patients. The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
15.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(6): 701-715, 2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild in nearly all children, a small proportion of pediatric patients develop severe or critical illness. Guidance is therefore needed regarding use of agents with potential activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in pediatrics. METHODS: A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 18 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of best available evidence and expert opinion. RESULTS: Given the typically mild course of pediatric COVID-19, supportive care alone is suggested for the overwhelming majority of cases. The panel suggests a decision-making framework for antiviral therapy that weighs risks and benefits based on disease severity as indicated by respiratory support needs, with consideration on a case-by-case basis of potential pediatric risk factors for disease progression. If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available. Antivirals should preferably be used as part of a clinical trial if available. CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For those rare cases of severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding antivirals, informed by available data. As evidence continues to evolve rapidly, the need for updates to the guidance is anticipated.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
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