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Fertil Steril ; 119(3): 392-400, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240618


OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of people who experience changes to their menstrual cycle after COVID-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. PATIENT(S): We recruited a volunteer sample with and without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who enrolled in the Arizona COVID-19 Cohort (CoVHORT) study and participated in a reproductive sub-cohort who were pre-menopausal, not pregnant, and had received a COVID-19 vaccine in 2021 (n = 545). EXPOSURE(S): Demographic and reproductive characteristics were collected via self-reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on self-reported changes in the menstrual cycle after COVID-19 vaccination was collected from May 2021 to December 2021. We looked at demographic and reproductive characteristics as predictors of menstrual cycle change. RESULT(S): The majority of our vaccinated sample received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine (58%), and were 26-35 years old (51%), non-Hispanic (84%), and White (88%). Approximately 25% of vaccinated participants reported a change in their menstrual cycle after vaccination; the majority reported changes after their second dose (56%) as compared with their first (18%) and third (14%) doses. The most commonly reported changes were irregular menstruation (43%), increased premenstrual symptoms (34%), increased menstrual pain or cramps (30%), and abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding (31%). High self-reported perceived stress levels compared with low perceived stress (OR, 2.22; 95% CI 1.12-4.37) and greater body mass index (OR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.07) were associated with greater odds of experiencing the menstrual cycle changes after the vaccination. Participants having a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to report changes in their menstrual cycle after vaccination compared with the participants with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR, 0.58; 95% CI 0.32-1.04). CONCLUSION(S): Among vaccinated participants, approximately 25% of them reported predominantly temporary changes in the menstrual cycle, however, we are unable to determine whether these changes are due to normal cycle variability. The COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective for everyone, including pregnant people and people trying to conceive; hence, these findings should not discourage vaccination.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Menstrual Cycle , Vaccination