Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Front Neurol ; 13: 751133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798927

ABSTRACT

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children with tuberculosis (TB), yet there are currently no estimates of the global burden of pediatric TBM. Due to frequent non-specific clinical presentation and limited and inadequate diagnostic tests, children with TBM are often diagnosed late or die undiagnosed. Even when diagnosed and treated, 20% of children with TBM die. Of survivors, the majority have substantial neurological disability with significant negative impact on children and their families. Surveillance data on this devastating form of TB can help to quantify the contribution of TBM to the overall burden, morbidity and mortality of TB in children and the epidemiology of TB more broadly. Pediatric TBM usually occurs shortly after primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and reflects ongoing TB transmission to children. In this article we explain the public health importance of pediatric TBM, discuss the epidemiology within the context of overall TB control and health system functioning and the limitations of current surveillance strategies. We provide a clear rationale for the benefit of improved surveillance of pediatric TBM using a TB care cascade framework to support monitoring and evaluation of pediatric TB, and TB control more broadly. Considering the public health implications of a diagnosis of TBM in children, we provide recommendations to strengthen pediatric TBM surveillance and outline how improved surveillance can help us identify opportunities for prevention, earlier diagnosis and improved care to minimize the impact of TBM on children globally.

2.
Pathogens ; 11(2)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667265

ABSTRACT

Over the past 15 years, and despite many difficulties, significant progress has been made to advance child and adolescent tuberculosis (TB) care. Despite increasing availability of safe and effective treatment and prevention options, TB remains a global health priority as a major cause of child and adolescent morbidity and mortality-over one and a half million children and adolescents develop TB each year. A history of the global public health perspective on child and adolescent TB is followed by 12 narratives detailing challenges and progress in 19 TB endemic low and middle-income countries. Overarching challenges include: under-detection and under-reporting of child and adolescent TB; poor implementation and reporting of contact investigation and TB preventive treatment services; the need for health systems strengthening to deliver effective, decentralized services; and lack of integration between TB programs and child health services. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on case detection and treatment outcomes. Child and adolescent TB working groups can address country-specific challenges to close the policy-practice gaps by developing and supporting decentral ized models of care, strengthening clinical and laboratory diagnosis, including of multidrug-resistant TB, providing recommended options for treatment of disease and infection, and forging strong collaborations across relevant health sectors.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1067-1073, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132453

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared with adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a substantial number of children globally will benefit from pharmacologic treatments. It will be reasonable to extrapolate efficacy of most treatments from adult trials to children. Pediatric trials should focus on characterizing a treatment's pharmacokinetics, optimal dose, and safety across the age spectrum. These trials should use an adaptive design to efficiently add or remove arms in what will be a rapidly evolving treatment landscape, and should involve a large number of sites across the globe in a collaborative effort to facilitate efficient implementation. All stakeholders must commit to equitable access to any effective, safe treatment for children everywhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(6): 1067-1073, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619323

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials of pharmacologic treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are being rapidly designed and implemented in adults. Children are often not considered during development of novel treatments for infectious diseases until very late. Although children appear to have a lower risk compared with adults of severe COVID-19 disease, a substantial number of children globally will benefit from pharmacologic treatments. It will be reasonable to extrapolate efficacy of most treatments from adult trials to children. Pediatric trials should focus on characterizing a treatment's pharmacokinetics, optimal dose, and safety across the age spectrum. These trials should use an adaptive design to efficiently add or remove arms in what will be a rapidly evolving treatment landscape, and should involve a large number of sites across the globe in a collaborative effort to facilitate efficient implementation. All stakeholders must commit to equitable access to any effective, safe treatment for children everywhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL