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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(12): 1979, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775468
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315902

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 and governments’attempts to contain the pandemic are having many negative impacts on young children’s health and development, including confining them and their families to their homes. However, little is known about levels of household preparedness for protecting young children from the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic in low- and middle-income countries’(LMICs). Methods: Using data from nationally-representative household surveys (Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys) in 45 LMICs since 2016, we estimated the percentages of young children living in households prepared for the pandemic and associated socioeconomic disparities. Preparedness was defined on the basis of space for quarantine, adequacy of toilet facilities and hand hygiene, mass media exposure, and phone ownership. The assessment was made at the country and aggregate levels. The final data set included 681,682 children under age five. Findings: Of all young children in the sample, only 19·6% (95% CI, 16·8%-22·4%) lived in households prepared for COVID-19, ranging from 0·6% in Ethiopia (95% CI, 0·3-0·9%) in 2016 to 70·9% (95% CI, 68·4-73·4%) in Tunisia in 2018. In close to 90% of countries (40), fewer than 50% of young children lived in prepared households and fewer than 10% in 23 countries. Young children in rural areas or in the poorest households were less likely to live in prepared households than their counterparts, with an average gap of 11·2 (95% CI, 9·2-13·3) and 34·3 (95% CI, 26·9-41·7) percentage points, respectively. In 28 countries, fewer than 1% of young children in the poorest wealth quintiles lived in households prepared for the COVID-19, mostly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation: A large portion of young children in 45 LMICs were not protected from COVID-19 in their homes and were at risk of worsening health and development. Global and national investments are urgently needed to improve housing conditions needed to prevent spread of COVID and other communicable diseases. Funding Statement: UKRI Collective Fund Award (Grant Ref: ES/T003936/1) to the University of Oxford, “UKRI GCRF Harnessing the power of global data to support young children's learning and development: Analyses, dissemination and implementation”Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

3.
NPJ Sci Learn ; 6(1): 27, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402070

ABSTRACT

A recent Nature article modelled within-country inequalities in primary, secondary, and tertiary education and forecast progress towards Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets related to education (SDG 4). However, their paper entirely overlooks inequalities in achieving Target 4.2, which aims to achieve universal access to quality early childhood development, care and preschool education by 2030. This is an important omission because of the substantial brain, cognitive and socioemotional developments that occur in early life and because of increasing evidence of early-life learning's large impacts on subsequent education and lifetime wellbeing. We provide an overview of this evidence and use new analyses to illustrate medium- and long-term implications of early learning, first by presenting associations between pre-primary programme participation and adolescent mathematics and science test scores in 73 countries and secondly, by estimating the costs of inaction (not making pre-primary programmes universal) in terms of forgone lifetime earnings in 134 countries. We find considerable losses, comparable to or greater than current governmental expenditures on all education (as percentages of GDP), particularly in low- and lower-middle-income countries. In addition to improving primary, secondary and tertiary schooling, we conclude that to attain SDG 4 and reduce inequalities in a post-COVID era, it is essential to prioritize quality early childhood care and education, including adopting policies that support families to promote early learning and their children's education.

4.
Child Dev ; 92(5): e883-e899, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371815

ABSTRACT

Observational data collected prior to the pandemic (between 2004 and 2019) were used to simulate the potential consequences of early childhood care and education (ECCE) service closures on the estimated 167 million preprimary-age children in 196 countries who lost ECCE access between March 2020 and February 2021. COVID-19-related ECCE disruptions were estimated to result in 19.01 billion person-days of ECCE instruction lost, 10.75 million additional children falling "off track" in their early development, 14.18 million grades of learning lost by adolescence, and a present discounted value of USD 308.02 billion of earnings lost in adulthood. Further burdens associated with ongoing closures were also forecasted. Projected developmental and learning losses were concentrated in low- and lower middle-income countries, likely exacerbating long-standing global inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Humans , Income , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
6.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(9): 1501-1509, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325443

ABSTRACT

Research has demonstrated that paid sick leave reduces the spread of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases and improves preventive care and access to treatment across a wide range of conditions. However, the US has no national paid sick leave policy, and even unpaid leave via the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993-often viewed as a foundation for new paid leave legislation-is often inaccessible to workers. We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey to determine the extent to which specific FMLA features produce gaps and disparities in leave access. We then used comparative policy data from 193 countries to analyze whether these policy features are necessary or prevalent globally, or whether there are common alternatives. We found that the FMLA's minimum hours requirement disproportionately excludes women, whereas its tenure requirement disproportionately excludes Black, Indigenous, and multiracial workers. Latinx workers also face greater exclusion because of employer size requirements. Of the 94 percent of countries that provide permanent paid sick leave, none broadly restrict leave based on employer size, and 93 percent cover part-time workers without a minimum hours requirement. Enacting permanent paid sick leave that is accessible regardless of employer size, tenure, or hours is critical and feasible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sick Leave , Employment , Family Leave , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
International Journal of Human Rights ; : 1-20, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1316775

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shined a spotlight on the fundamental incompatibility of immigration detention with health. Yet immigration detention's threats to human rights did not begin with COVID-19. International treaties are clear that detaining children based on citizenship is a violation of human rights law. However, for international treaties and agreements to be fulfilled, most individual countries must enact domestic laws and policies to implement their commitments. In this study, we examine how many countries have laws to limit the detention of children.To assess the legislative protections for migrant and refugee children from detention, we created quantitatively comparable data on legal provisions across the 150 most populous UN member states. Our primary sources consisted of national-level laws, regulations, ministerial decisions, and executive decrees pertaining to asylum-seekers, refugees, and immigration.Globally, less than a quarter of countries legally protect unaccompanied asylum-seekers from detention and only 11% do so for accompanied minor migrants. Among countries that permit detention in at least some circumstances, only a minority address basic rights such as separation from adult strangers, family unity, access to education, and access to health care. Yet effective and human rights-respecting alternatives to detention exist;the evidence on these is provided. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Human Rights is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264456

ABSTRACT

Long-term PM2.5 exposure might predispose populations to SARS-CoV-2 infection and intervention policies might interrupt SARS-CoV-2 transmission and reduce the risk of COVID-19. We conducted an ecologic study across the United States, using county-level COVID-19 incidence up to 12 September 2020, to represent the first two surges in the U.S., annual average of PM2.5 between 2000 and 2016 and state-level facemask mandates and stay home orders. We fit negative binomial models to assess COVID-19 incidence in association with PM2.5 and policies. Stratified analyses by facemask policy and stay home policy were also performed. Each 1-µg/m3 increase in annual average concentration of PM2.5 exposure was associated with 7.56% (95% CI: 3.76%, 11.49%) increase in COVID-19 risk. Facemask mandates and stay home policies were inversely associated with COVID-19 with adjusted RRs of 0.8466 (95% CI: 0.7598, 0.9432) and 0.9193 (95% CI: 0.8021, 1.0537), respectively. The associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 were consistent among counties with or without preventive policies. Our study added evidence that long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of COVID-19 during each surge and cumulatively as of 12 September 2020, in the United States. Although both state-level implementation of facemask mandates and stay home orders were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19, no clear effect modification was observed regarding long-term exposure to PM2.5 on the risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Masks , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1497-1503, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186643

ABSTRACT

Under international law, the United States is obligated to uphold noncitizens' fundamental rights, including their rights to health. However, current US immigration laws-and their enforcement-not only fail to fulfill migrants' health rights but actively undermine their realization and worsen the pandemic's spread. Specifically, the US immigration system's reliance on detention, which precludes effective social distancing, increases risks of exposure and infection for detainees, staff, and their broader communities. International agreements clearly state that the prolonged, mandatory, or automatic detention of people solely because of their migration status is a human rights violation on its own. But in the context of COVID-19, the consequences for migrants' right to health are particularly acute. Effective alternatives exist: other countries demonstrate the feasibility of adopting and implementing immigration laws that establish far less restrictive, social services-based approaches to enforcement that respect human rights. To protect public health and realize its global commitments, the United States must shift away from detaining migrants as standard practice and adopt effective, humane alternatives-both amid COVID-19 and permanently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emigration and Immigration/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , Undocumented Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Services Accessibility/legislation & jurisprudence , Human Rights/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Right to Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Determinants of Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Social Justice , Transients and Migrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Undocumented Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
10.
Glob Public Health ; 15(7): 925-934, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245113

ABSTRACT

Well-designed paid sick leave is critical to ensure workers stay home when sick to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious pathogens, both when the economy is open and during an economic shutdown. To assess whether paid sick leave is available in countries around the world, we created and analysed a database of legislative guarantees of paid leave for personal illness in 193 UN member states. Original labour and social security legislation and global information on social security systems for each country were obtained and analysed by a multilingual research team using a common coding framework. While strong models exist across low- middle- and high-income countries, critical gaps that jeopardise health and economic security remain. 27% of countries do not guarantee paid sick leave from the first day of illness, essential to encouraging workers to stay home when they are sick and prevent spread. 58% of countries do not have explicit provisions to ensure self-employed and gig economy workers have access to paid sick leave benefits. Comprehensive paid sick leave policies that cover all workers are urgently needed if we are to reduce the spread of COVID-19, and be ready to respond to threats from new pathogens.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Sick Leave/economics , Sick Leave/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , United Nations
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