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1.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274196

ABSTRACT

The detailed mechanisms of COVID-19 infection pathology remain poorly understood. To improve our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 pathology, we performed a multi-omics analysis of an immunologically naive SARS-CoV-2 clinical cohort from the plasma of uninfected controls, mild, and severe infections. A comparison of healthy controls and patient samples showed activation of neutrophil degranulation pathways and formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) complexes that were activated in a subset of the mild infections and more prevalent in severe infections (containing multiple NET proteins in individual patient samples). As a potential mechanism to suppress NET formation, multiple redox enzymes were elevated in the mild and severe symptom population. Analysis of metabolites from the same cohort showed a 24- and 60-fold elevation in plasma L-cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, which is a substrate of the powerful antioxidant glutathione, in mild and severe patients, respectively. Unique to patients with mild infections, the carnosine dipeptidase modifying enzyme (CNDP1) was up-regulated. The strong protein and metabolite oxidation signatures suggest multiple compensatory pathways working to suppress oxidation and NET formation in SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265693

ABSTRACT

To evaluate vaccine-induced humoral and cell-mediated immunity at 6 months post BNT162b2 vaccination, immunoglobulin G against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP IgG), 50% neutralizing antibody (NT50), and spot-forming cell (SFC) counts were evaluated by interferon-{gamma} releasing ELISpot assay of 98 healthy subjects (median age, 43 years). The geometric mean titers of SP IgG and NT50 decreased from 95.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 79.8-113.4) to 5.7 (95% CI 4.9-6.7) and from 680.4 (588.0-787.2) to 130.4 (95% CI 104.2-163.1), respectively, at 3 weeks and 6 months after the vaccination. SP IgG titer was negatively correlated with age and alcohol consumption. Spot-forming cell counts at 6 months did not correlate with age, gender, and other parameters of the patients. SP IgG, NT50, and SFC titers were elevated in the breakthrough infected subjects. Although the levels of vaccine-induced antibodies dramatically declined at 6 months after vaccination, a certain degree of cellular immunity was observed irrespective of the age.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21263927

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLevels of 50% neutralizing titer (NT50) reflect a vaccine-induced humoral immunity after the vaccination against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Measurements of NT50 are difficult to implement in large quantities. A high-throughput laboratory test is expected for determining the level of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2. MethodsWe analyzed samples from 168 Japanese healthcare workers who had completed two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. We analyzed immunoglobulin G (IgG) index values against spike protein (SP) using automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system AIA-CL and analyzed the background factors affecting antibody titer. SP IgG index was compared with 50% neutralization titers. ResultsThe median SP IgG index values of the subjects (mean age = 43 years; 75% female) were 0.1, 1.35, 60.80, and 97.35 before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after the first dose, respectively. At 4 and 6 weeks after the first dose, SP IgG titers were found to have positive correlation with NT50 titer (r=0.7535 in 4 weeks; r=0.4376 in 6 weeks). Proportions of the SP IgG index values against the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants compared with the original strain were 2.029, 0.544, 1.017, and 0.6096 respectively. Older age was associated with lower SP IgG titer index 6 weeks after the first dose. ConclusionsSP IgG index values were raised at 3 weeks after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination and have positive correlation with NT50. SP IgG index values were lower in the older individuals and against Beta and Delta strain.

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