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1.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(7S): S457-S464, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of a postoperative diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) remains unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of COVID-19 infection following TJA on perioperative complication rates. METHODS: The Mariner database was queried for patients undergoing total hip and total knee arthroplasty from January 2018 to April 2020. TJA patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 within 90 days postoperatively were matched in a 1:3 fashion based on age, gender, iron deficiency anemia, payer status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index with patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. Preoperative comorbidity profiles and complications within 3 months of surgery were compared. Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression with outcomes considered significant at P < .05. RESULTS: Of the 239 COVID-19 positive patients, 132 (55.2%) underwent total hip arthroplasty. On multivariate analysis, COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with increased odds of deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 4.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10-11.81, P < .001), pulmonary embolism (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.57-16.71, P < .001), and all complications (OR 3.36, 95% CI 2.47-4.59, P < .001). Incidence of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism was greater the closer in time the COVID-19 diagnosis was to the surgical procedure (10.24 times at 1 month, 7.87 times at 2 months, and 1.42 times at 3 months; P < .001). A similar relationship was observed with all complications. CONCLUSION: Postoperative COVID-19 infection is associated with higher rates of cardiopulmonary complications, thromboembolic disease, renal injury, and urinary tract infections in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. COVID-19 infection earlier in the postoperative period is associated with a higher risk of complications.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thrombosis , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
2.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294724

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is the physiologic reaction to cellular and tissue damage caused by pathologic processes including trauma, infection, and ischemia 1 . Effective inflammatory responses integrate molecular and cellular functions to prevent further tissue damage, initiate repair, and restore homeostasis, while futile or dysfunctional responses allow escalating injury, delay recovery, and may hasten death 2 . Elevation of white blood cell count (WBC) and altered levels of other acute phase reactants are cardinal signs of inflammation, but the dynamics of these changes and their resolution are not established 3,4 . Patient responses appear to vary dramatically with no clearly defined signs of good prognosis, leaving physicians reliant on qualitative interpretations of laboratory trends 4,5 . We retrospectively, observationally studied the human acute inflammatory response to trauma, ischemia, and infection by tracking the longitudinal dynamics of cellular and serum markers in hospitalized patients. Unexpectedly, we identified a conserved pattern of recovery defined by co-regulation of WBC and platelet (PLT) populations. Across all inflammatory conditions studied, recovering patients followed a consistent WBC-PLT trajectory shape that is well-approximated by exponential WBC decay and delayed linear PLT growth. This recovery trajectory shape may represent a fundamental archetype of human physiologic response at the cellular population scale, and provides a generic approach for identifying high-risk patients: 32x relative risk of adverse outcomes for cardiac surgery patients, 9x relative risk of death for COVID-19, and 5x relative risk of death for myocardial infarction.

3.
Front Neurol ; 12: 642912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with comorbidities are at increased risk for poor outcomes in COVID-19, yet data on patients with prior neurological disease remains limited. Our objective was to determine the odds of critical illness and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prior cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19. Methods: A observational study of 1,128 consecutive adult patients admitted to an academic center in Boston, Massachusetts, and diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We tested the association between prior cerebrovascular disease and critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation (MV) or death by day 28, using logistic regression with inverse probability weighting of the propensity score. Among intubated patients, we estimated the cumulative incidence of successful extubation without death over 45 days using competing risk analysis. Results: Of the 1,128 adults with COVID-19, 350 (36%) were critically ill by day 28. The median age of patients was 59 years (SD: 18 years) and 640 (57%) were men. As of June 2nd, 2020, 127 (11%) patients had died. A total of 177 patients (16%) had a prior cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with critical illness (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.07), lower rate of successful extubation (cause-specific HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98), and increased duration of intubation (restricted mean time difference = 4.02 days, 95% CI = 0.34-10.92) compared to patients without cerebrovascular disease. Interpretation: Prior cerebrovascular disease adversely affects COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further study is required to determine if this subpopulation requires closer monitoring for disease progression during COVID-19.

4.
Placenta ; 104: 261-266, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065532

ABSTRACT

We present a case of third trimester pregnancy complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent reduced fetal movements, resulting in emergency Caesarean delivery with demonstrable placental SARS-CoV-2 placentitis. We show through illustration of this case and literature review that SARS-Co-V-2 placentitis is an uncommon but readily recognisable complication of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection that may be a marker of potential vertical transmission and that may have the capacity to cause fetal compromise through a direct injurious effect on the placenta.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/virology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2022058, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-784191

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory illness with a high rate of hospitalization and mortality. Biomarkers are urgently needed for patient risk stratification. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), a component of complete blood counts that reflects cellular volume variation, has been shown to be associated with elevated risk for morbidity and mortality in a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate whether an association between mortality risk and elevated RDW at hospital admission and during hospitalization exists in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adults diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and admitted to 1 of 4 hospitals in the Boston, Massachusetts area (Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, North Shore Medical Center, and Newton-Wellesley Hospital) between March 4, 2020, and April 28, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was patient survival during hospitalization. Measures included RDW at admission and during hospitalization, with an elevated RDW defined as greater than 14.5%. Relative risk (RR) of mortality was estimated by dividing the mortality of those with an elevated RDW by the mortality of those without an elevated RDW. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: A total of 1641 patients were included in the study (mean [SD] age, 62[18] years; 886 men [54%]; 740 White individuals [45%] and 497 Hispanic individuals [30%]; 276 nonsurvivors [17%]). Elevated RDW (>14.5%) was associated with an increased mortality risk in patients of all ages. The RR for the entire cohort was 2.73, with a mortality rate of 11% in patients with normal RDW (1173) and 31% in those with an elevated RDW (468). The RR in patients younger than 50 years was 5.25 (normal RDW, 1% [n = 341]; elevated RDW, 8% [n = 65]); 2.90 in the 50- to 59-year age group (normal RDW, 8% [n = 256]; elevated RDW, 24% [n = 63]); 3.96 in the 60- to 69-year age group (normal RDW, 8% [n = 226]; elevated RDW, 30% [104]); 1.45 in the 70- to 79-year age group (normal RDW, 23% [n = 182]; elevated RDW, 33% [n = 113]); and 1.59 in those ≥80 years (normal RDW, 29% [n = 168]; elevated RDW, 46% [n = 123]). RDW was associated with mortality risk in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, D-dimer (dimerized plasmin fragment D) level, absolute lymphocyte count, and common comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension (hazard ratio of 1.09 per 0.5% RDW increase and 2.01 for an RDW >14.5% vs ≤14.5%; P < .001). Patients whose RDW increased during hospitalization had higher mortality compared with those whose RDW did not change; for those with normal RDW, mortality increased from 6% to 24%, and for those with an elevated RDW at admission, mortality increased from 22% to 40%. Conclusions and Relevance: Elevated RDW at the time of hospital admission and an increase in RDW during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk for patients with COVID-19 who received treatment at 4 hospitals in a large academic medical center network.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Erythrocyte Indices , Erythrocytes , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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