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Innovar ; 32(86):27-42, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081090


Quinoa is a traditional food grain that originated in the Peruvian Andean region. The United Nations declared 2013 to be the International Year of Quinoa (iyq). This official launch had a great impact around the world. On the contrary, it had minor impact on the consumption of quinoa in Peru, which remained relatively steady in the following years. However, the covid-19 pandemic raised concerns about nutrition and health among consumers. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze quinoa consumption in Peru during the covid-19 pandemic. Primary data were collected between September 2020 and August 2021 in Lima Metropolitan Area, Peru. Exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed for data analysis, and logistic binomial analysis was then conducted to consolidate the hypothesis of this study. The main outcomes identified were that (i) current quinoa consumers in Peru ate this food even before the iyq;(ii) consumers who are concerned about their health and nutrition needs increased quinoa consumption during the pandemic;(iii) women showed a higher probability of daily to weekly trend in quinoa consumption;and (iv) people with the highest income have more probability of purchasing food at supermarkets than others with less income. The findings of this study can shed some light on consumers’ expectations and perceptions regarding quinoa consumption behavior during covid-19. © 2022, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.

Polymer Reviews ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984894


Vaccine development is among the critical issues for ceasing the COVID-19 pandemic. This review discusses the current usage of biomaterials in vaccine development and provides brief descriptions of the vaccine types and their working mechanisms. New types of vaccine platforms (next-generation vaccines and DNA- or mRNA-based vaccines) are discussed in detail. The mRNA vaccine encoding the spike protein viral antigen can be produced in a cell-free system, suggesting that mRNA vaccines are safer than “classic vaccines” using live or inactivated virus. The mRNA vaccine efficacy is typically high at approximately 95%. However, most mRNA vaccines need to be maintained at −20 or −70 degrees for storage for long periods (half a year) and their transportation because of mRNA vaccine instability in general, although mRNA vaccines with unmodified and self-amplifying RNA (ARCT-154, Arcturus), which have a lyophilized form, have recently been reported to be kept at room temperature. mRNA vaccines are typically entrapped in lipid nanoparticles composed of ionizable lipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. These components and their composition affect mRNA vaccine stability and efficacy and the size of the mRNA vaccine. The development of an improved mRNA vaccine entrapped in sophisticated biomaterials, such as novel lipid nanoparticles, using new types of biopolymers or lipids is necessary for high efficacy, safe transportation and long-term storage of the next generation of mRNA vaccines under mild conditions. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.