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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(650): eabn7737, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807308

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant contains an unusually high number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns of escape from vaccines, convalescent serum, and therapeutic drugs. Here, we analyzed the degree to which Omicron pseudo-virus evades neutralization by serum or therapeutic antibodies. Serum samples obtained 3 months after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination exhibited 18-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than parental virus. Convalescent serum samples from individuals infected with the Alpha and Delta variants allowed similar frequencies of Omicron breakthrough infections. Domain-wise analysis using chimeric spike proteins revealed that this efficient evasion was primarily achieved by mutations clustered in the receptor binding domain but that multiple mutations in the N-terminal domain contributed as well. Omicron escaped a therapeutic cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab, which targets a conserved region to avoid viral mutation, remains effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoys are another virus-neutralizing drug modality that are free, at least in theory, from complete escape. Deep mutational analysis demonstrated that an engineered ACE2 molecule prevented escape for each single-residue mutation in the receptor binding domain, similar to immunized serum. Engineered ACE2 neutralized Omicron comparably to the Wuhan strain and also showed a therapeutic effect against Omicron infection in hamsters and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Similar to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, some sarbecoviruses showed high sensitivity against engineered ACE2, confirming the therapeutic value against diverse variants, including those that are yet to emerge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296726

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron (B.1.1.529) contains about 30 mutations in the spike protein and the numerous mutations raise the concern of escape from vaccine, convalescent sera and therapeutic drugs. Here we analyze the alteration of their neutralizing titer with Omicron pseudovirus. Sera of 3 months after double BNT162b2 vaccination exhibite ~27-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than D614G mutation. Neutralization titer is also reduced in convalescent sera from Alpha and Delta patients. However, some Delta patients have relatively preserved neutralization activity up to the level of 3-month double BNT162b2 vaccination. Omicron escapes from the cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab that targets the conserved region to prevent viral escape is effective to Omicron similarly to the original SARS-CoV-2. The ACE2 decoy is another modality that neutralize the virus independently of mutational escape and Omicron is also sensitive to the engineered ACE2.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3802, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387351

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has mutated during the global pandemic leading to viral adaptation to medications and vaccinations. Here we describe an engineered human virus receptor, ACE2, by mutagenesis and screening for binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD). Three cycles of random mutagenesis and cell sorting achieved sub-nanomolar affinity to RBD. Our structural data show that the enhanced affinity comes from better hydrophobic packing and hydrogen-bonding geometry at the interface. Additional disulfide mutations caused the fixing of a closed ACE2 conformation to avoid off-target effects of protease activity, and also improved structural stability. Our engineered ACE2 neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at a 100-fold lower concentration than wild type; we also report that no escape mutants emerged in the co-incubation after 15 passages. Therapeutic administration of engineered ACE2 protected hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection, decreased lung virus titers and pathology. Our results provide evidence of a therapeutic potential of engineered ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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