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Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(7): 838-846, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784567


BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to determine if treatment with senicapoc, improves the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio in patients with COVID-19 and severe respiratory insufficiency. METHODS: Investigator-initiated, randomized, open-label, phase II trial in four intensive care units (ICU) in Denmark. We included patients aged ≥18 years and admitted to an ICU with severe respiratory insufficiency due to COVID-19. The intervention consisted of 50 mg enteral senicapoc administered as soon as possible after randomization and again after 24 h. Patients in the control group received standard care only. The primary outcome was the PaO2 /FiO2 ratio at 72 h. RESULTS: Twenty patients were randomized to senicapoc and 26 patients to standard care. Important differences existed in patient characteristics at baseline, including more patients being on non-invasive/invasive ventilation in the control group (54% vs. 35%). The median senicapoc concentration at 72 h was 62.1 ng/ml (IQR 46.7-71.2). The primary outcome, PaO2 /FiO2 ratio at 72 h, was significantly lower in the senicapoc group (mean 19.5 kPa, SD 6.6) than in the control group (mean 24.4 kPa, SD 9.2) (mean difference -5.1 kPa [95% CI -10.2, -0.04] p = .05). The 28-day mortality in the senicapoc group was 2/20 (10%) compared with 6/26 (23%) in the control group (OR 0.36 95% CI 0.06-2.07, p = .26). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with senicapoc resulted in a significantly lower PaO2 /FiO2 ratio at 72 h with no differences for other outcomes.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Acetamides , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Trityl Compounds
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554811


Patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with compromised gas exchange. These patients require oxygen and possibly ventilatory support, which can be delivered via different devices. Initially, oxygen therapy will often be administered through a conventional binasal oxygen catheter or air-entrainment mask. However, when higher rates of oxygen flow are needed, patients are often stepped up to high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP), or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). BiPAP, CPAP, and HFNC may be beneficial alternatives to IMV for COVID-19-associated ARF. Current evidence suggests that when nasal catheter oxygen therapy is insufficient for adequate oxygenation of patients with COVID-19-associated ARF, CPAP should be provided for prolonged periods. Subsequent escalation to IMV may be implemented if necessary.

Eur Clin Respir J ; 7(1): 1761677, 2020 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599972


INTRODUCTION: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presented health-care systems worldwide with novel challenges and experiences and evidence is emerging during the pandemic. Patients requiring hospitalization frequently suffer from respiratory failure of different severities. AIM: The aim of this guideline is the treatment of patients with SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) in hospital; in particular, it addresses the treatment of respiratory failure treated in general Internal Medical- and Pulmonary Medical wards. RESULTS: Elderly patients and patients with chronic disease are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. Target oxygen saturation should be between 92% and 96% in patients without chronic lung diseases. Treatment with >5 L oxygen/min should be in close collaboration with intensive care colleagues and >15 l/min preferably in intensive care units. High-flow nasal canula (HFNC) and long-term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) are recommended for patients not responding to conventional oxygen therapy. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is only recommended for selected patients, such as those with a ceiling of treatment or patients presenting with hypercapnic failure. With the use of humidification protective equipment as FFP2-3 masks should be used. Nebulized medication should be avoided, and spacers should be used instead. CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure is frequently the cause of hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 and should be monitored closely.