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1.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need to assess neighborhood-level factors driving COVID-19 disparities across racial and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: To use census tract-level data to investigate neighborhood-level factors contributing to racial and ethnic group-specific COVID-19 case rates in California. DESIGN: Quasi-Poisson generalized linear models were used to identify neighborhood-level factors associated with COVID-19 cases. In separate sequential models for Hispanic, Black, and Asian, we characterized the associations between neighborhood factors on neighborhood COVID-19 cases. Subanalyses were conducted on neighborhoods with majority Hispanic, Black, and Asian residents to identify factors that might be unique to these neighborhoods. Geographically weighted regression using a quasi-Poisson model was conducted to identify regional differences. MAIN MEASURES: All COVID-19 cases and tests reported through January 31, 2021, to the California Department of Public Health. Neighborhood-level data from census tracts were obtained from American Community Survey 5-year estimates (2015-2019), United States Census (2010), and United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. KEY RESULTS: The neighborhood factors associated with COVID-19 case rate were racial and ethnic composition, age, limited English proficiency (LEP), income, household size, and population density. LEP had the largest influence on the positive association between proportion of Hispanic residents and COVID-19 cases (- 2.1% change). This was also true for proportion of Asian residents (- 1.8% change), but not for the proportion of Black residents (- 0.1% change). The influence of LEP was strongest in areas of the Bay Area, Los Angeles, and San Diego. CONCLUSION: Neighborhood-level contextual drivers of COVID-19 burden differ across racial and ethnic groups.

2.
PLOS global public health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2288360

ABSTRACT

Between March 2020 and February 2021, the state of Baja California, Mexico, which borders the United States, registered 46,118 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with a mortality rate of 238.2 deaths per 100,000 residents. Given limited access to testing, the population prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. The objective of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the three most populous cities of Baja California prior to scale-up of a national COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Probabilistic three-stage clustered sampling was used to conduct a population-based household survey of residents five years and older in the three cities. RT-PCR testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was determined by IgG antibody testing using fingerstick blood samples. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed participants' knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding COVID-19. In total, 1,126 individuals (unweighted sample) were surveyed across the three cities. Overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR was 7.8% (95% CI 5.5–11.0) and IgG seroprevalence was 21.1% (95% CI 17.4–25.2). There was no association between border crossing in the past 6 months and SARS-CoV-2 prevalence (unadjusted OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.12–1.30). While face mask use and frequent hand washing were common among participants, quarantine or social isolation at home to prevent infection was not. Regarding vaccination willingness, 30.4% (95% CI 24.4–3 7.1) of participants said they were very unlikely to get vaccinated. Given the high prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection in Baja California at the end of the first year of the pandemic, combined with its low seroprevalence and the considerable proportion of vaccine hesitancy, this important area along the Mexico-United States border faces major challenges in terms of health literacy and vaccine uptake, which need to be further explored, along with its implications for border restrictions in future epidemics.

3.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 2(8): e0000820, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039238

ABSTRACT

Between March 2020 and February 2021, the state of Baja California, Mexico, which borders the United States, registered 46,118 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with a mortality rate of 238.2 deaths per 100,000 residents. Given limited access to testing, the population prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. The objective of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the three most populous cities of Baja California prior to scale-up of a national COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Probabilistic three-stage clustered sampling was used to conduct a population-based household survey of residents five years and older in the three cities. RT-PCR testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs and SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was determined by IgG antibody testing using fingerstick blood samples. An interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed participants' knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding COVID-19. In total, 1,126 individuals (unweighted sample) were surveyed across the three cities. Overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR was 7.8% (95% CI 5.5-11.0) and IgG seroprevalence was 21.1% (95% CI 17.4-25.2). There was no association between border crossing in the past 6 months and SARS-CoV-2 prevalence (unadjusted OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.12-1.30). While face mask use and frequent hand washing were common among participants, quarantine or social isolation at home to prevent infection was not. Regarding vaccination willingness, 30.4% (95% CI 24.4-3 7.1) of participants said they were very unlikely to get vaccinated. Given the high prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection in Baja California at the end of the first year of the pandemic, combined with its low seroprevalence and the considerable proportion of vaccine hesitancy, this important area along the Mexico-United States border faces major challenges in terms of health literacy and vaccine uptake, which need to be further explored, along with its implications for border restrictions in future epidemics.

4.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(8): 1821-1830, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected driving and health outcomes in older adults. METHODS: We compared Advancing Understanding of Transportation Options (AUTO) study participants enrolled before (December 2019 to March 2020) versus during the pandemic (May 2020 to June 2021). Participants were English-speaking, licensed drivers (≥70 years) who drove weekly and had a primary care provider at a study site and ≥1 medical condition potentially associated with driving cessation. We used baseline self-reported measures on mobility and health. RESULTS: Compared to those enrolled pre-COVID-19 (n = 61), more participants enrolled during COVID-19 (n = 240) reported driving reductions (26% vs. 70%, p < .001) and more often for personal preference (vs. medical/emotional reasons). While mean social isolation was higher during than pre-COVID-19, self-reported depression, stress, and overall health PROMIS scores did not differ significantly. DISCUSSION: Our findings highlight the resiliency of some older adults and have implications for mitigating the negative effects of driving cessation.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Aged , Automobile Driving/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Transportation , United States/epidemiology
6.
Health Policy Open ; 2: 100051, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UC San Diego Health System (UCSDHS) is the largest academic medical center and integrated care network in US-Mexico border area of California contiguous to the Northern Baja region of Mexico. The COVID-19 pandemic compelled several UCSDHS and local communities to create awareness around best methods to promote regional health in this economically, socially, and politically important border area. PURPOSE: To improve understanding of optimal strategies to execute critical care collaborative programs between academic and community health centers facing public health emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on the experience of UCSDHS and several community hospitals (one US, two Mexican) in the US-Mexico border region. METHODS: After taking several preparatory steps, we developed a two-phase program that included 1) in-person activities to perform needs assessments, hands-on training and education, and morale building and 2) creation of a telemedicine-based (Tele-ICU) service for direct patient management and/or educational coaching experiences.Findings.A clinical and educational program between academic and community border hospitals was feasible, effective, and well received. CONCLUSION: We offer several policy-oriented recommendations steps for academic and community healthcare programs to build educational, collaborative partnerships to address COVID-19 and other cross-cultural, international public health emergencies.

7.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043783

ABSTRACT

Background: UC San Diego Health System (UCSDHS) is an academic medical center and integrated care network in the US-Mexico border area of California contiguous to the Mexican Northern Baja region. The COVID-19 pandemic deeply influenced UCSDHS activities as new public health challenges increasingly related to high population density, cross-border traffic, economic disparities, and interconnectedness between cross-border communities, which accelerated development of clinical collaborations between UCSDHS and several border community hospitals - one in the US, two in Mexico - as high volumes of severely ill patients overwhelmed hospitals. Objective: We describe the development, implementation, feasibility, and acceptance of a novel critical care support program in three community hospitals along the US-Mexico border. Methods: We created and instituted a hybrid critical care program involving: 1) in-person activities to perform needs assessments of equipment and supplies and hands-on training and education, and 2) creation of a telemedicine-based (Tele-ICU) service for direct patient management and/or consultative, education-based experiences. We collected performance metrics surrounding adherence to evidence-based practices and staff perceptions of critical care delivery. Findings: In-person intervention phase identified and filled gaps in equipment and supplies, and Tele-ICU program promoted adherence to evidence-based practices and improved staff confidence in caring for critically ill COVID-19 patients at each hospital. Conclusion: A collaborative, hybrid critical care program across academic and community centers is feasible and effective to address cross-cultural public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Hospitals, Community , Interdisciplinary Communication , Telemedicine , Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , California , Critical Care/organization & administration , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Intensive Care Units , International Cooperation , Mexico , Nursing/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Efficacy
8.
MIT Sloan Management Review ; 62(1):7-10, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-826211

ABSTRACT

Leading in late 2020 means carving a new path through an epic disruption precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has spawned health, economic, and social crises that have rendered the best-laid plans useless. With no road map for the marathon ahead, navigating through these times is a test of agility. Together, you and your organization will have to experiment, execute, and learn from successes and failures to invent your organization's future. Here, Hill discusses the three imperatives of great leadership.

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