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1.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103722, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous publications describe the clinical manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC or "long COVID"), but they are difficult to integrate because of heterogeneous methods and the lack of a standard for denoting the many phenotypic manifestations. Patient-led studies are of particular importance for understanding the natural history of COVID-19, but integration is hampered because they often use different terms to describe the same symptom or condition. This significant disparity in patient versus clinical characterization motivated the proposed ontological approach to specifying manifestations, which will improve capture and integration of future long COVID studies. METHODS: The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is a widely used standard for exchange and analysis of phenotypic abnormalities in human disease but has not yet been applied to the analysis of COVID-19. FINDINGS: We identified 303 articles published before April 29, 2021, curated 59 relevant manuscripts that described clinical manifestations in 81 cohorts three weeks or more following acute COVID-19, and mapped 287 unique clinical findings to HPO terms. We present layperson synonyms and definitions that can be used to link patient self-report questionnaires to standard medical terminology. Long COVID clinical manifestations are not assessed consistently across studies, and most manifestations have been reported with a wide range of synonyms by different authors. Across at least 10 cohorts, authors reported 31 unique clinical features corresponding to HPO terms; the most commonly reported feature was Fatigue (median 45.1%) and the least commonly reported was Nausea (median 3.9%), but the reported percentages varied widely between studies. INTERPRETATION: Translating long COVID manifestations into computable HPO terms will improve analysis, data capture, and classification of long COVID patients. If researchers, clinicians, and patients share a common language, then studies can be compared/pooled more effectively. Furthermore, mapping lay terminology to HPO will help patients assist clinicians and researchers in creating phenotypic characterizations that are computationally accessible, thereby improving the stratification, diagnosis, and treatment of long COVID. FUNDING: U24TR002306; UL1TR001439; P30AG024832; GBMF4552; R01HG010067; UL1TR002535; K23HL128909; UL1TR002389; K99GM145411 .

2.
J Community Health ; 46(6): 1115-1123, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219766

ABSTRACT

Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in COVID-19 burden have been widely reported. Using data from the state health departments of Alabama and Louisiana aggregated to residential Census tracts, we assessed the relationship between social vulnerability and COVID-19 testing rates, test positivity, and incidence. Data were cumulative for the period of February 27, 2020 to October 7, 2020. We estimated the association of the 2018 Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) overall score and theme scores with COVID-19 tests, test positivity, and cases using multivariable negative binomial regressions. We adjusted for rurality with 2010 Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes. Regional effects were modeled as fixed effects of counties/parishes and state health department regions. The analytical sample included 1160 Alabama and 1105 Louisiana Census tracts. In both states, overall social vulnerability and vulnerability themes were significantly associated with increased COVID-19 case rates (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.45-1.70 for Alabama; RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.26-1.46 for Louisiana). There was increased COVID-19 testing with higher overall vulnerability in Louisiana (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.38), but not in Alabama (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.89-1.02). Consequently, test positivity in Alabama was significantly associated with social vulnerability (RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.57-1.75), whereas no such relationship was observed in Louisiana (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.98-1.12). Social vulnerability is a risk factor for COVID-19 infection, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and those in disadvantaged housing conditions without transportation. Increased testing targeted to vulnerable communities may contribute to reduction in test positivity and overall COVID-19 disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alabama/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Incidence , Louisiana , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States
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