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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 1474426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a major impact on blood donation process and supply globally. A lockdown management procedure was launched nationally in Saudi Arabia to manage this global health crisis. The main aim of this study was to determine the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on blood donation services and supply in different regions of Saudi Arabia. Study Design and Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the blood bank centers of 5 major cities including Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Hail, and Jizan in Saudi Arabia. Demographic and blood characteristics were retrieved from the first 6 months of 2019 (January-June) and compared to the same period of 2020. RESULTS: Our findings showed variation in the characteristics of blood donation and supply among the centers surveyed, as some of these centers were adversely affected, while others showed an increase in the availability of blood products during the pandemic. For example, Jeddah's center was significantly affected by COVID-19 lockdown whereas Hail's center showed a significant increase in the analyzed characteristics of blood donation services in 2020 compared to 2019. Overall, there was no major difference among the surveyed centers between 2020 and 2019, and this might be due to the effective management of blood supply and transfusion. Discussion. Although blood supply and transfusion practice was slightly affected at various degree among the surveyed centers, the whole process did not show a significant effect on the overall outcome. This is in fact due to the proper preparedness, management of blood requirements and supplies, and efficient response of the surveyed centers in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Blood Component Removal/statistics & numerical data , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Quarantine , Saudi Arabia
4.
Vox Sang ; 116(7): 798-807, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 is due to a pathological inflammatory response of raised cytokines. Removal of these cytokines by therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) prior to end-organ damage may improve clinical outcomes. This manuscript is intended to serve as a preliminary guidance document for application of TPE in patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The available literature pertaining to the role of TPE for treatment of COVID-19 patients was reviewed to guide optimal management. It included indication, contraindication, optimal timing of initiation and termination of TPE, vascular access and anticoagulants, numbers and mode of procedures, outcome measures and adverse events. RESULTS: Out of a total of 78 articles, only 65 were directly related to the topic. From these 65, only 32 were acceptable as primary source, while 33 were used as supporting references. TPE in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be classified under ASFA category III grade 2B. The early initiation of TPE for 1-1·5 patient's plasma volume with fresh frozen plasma, or 4-5% albumin or COVID-19 convalescent plasma as replacement fluids before multiorgan failure, has better chances of recovery. The number of procedures can vary from three to nine depending on patient response. CONCLUSION: TPE in COVID-19 patients may help by removing toxic cytokines, viral particles and/or by correcting coagulopathy or restoring endothelial membrane. Severity score (SOFA & APACHE II) and cytokine levels (IL-6, C-reactive protein) can be used to execute TPE therapy and to monitor response in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasmapheresis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Vox Sang ; 116(6): 673-681, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in plasma and platelet products from asymptomatic blood donors, raising concerns about potential risk of transfusion transmission, also in the context of the current therapeutic approach utilizing plasma from convalescent donors. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of amotosalen/UVA light treatment to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in human plasma to reduce the risk of potential transmission through blood transfusion. METHODS: Pools of three whole-blood-derived human plasma units (630-650 ml) were inoculated with a clinical SARS-CoV-2 isolate. Spiked units were treated with amotosalen/UVA light (INTERCEPT Blood System™) to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Infectious titres and genomic viral load were assessed by plaque assay and real-time quantitative PCR. Inactivated samples were subject to three successive passages on permissive tissue culture to exclude the presence of replication-competent viral particles. RESULTS: Inactivation of infectious viral particles in spiked plasma units below the limit of detection was achieved by amotosalen/UVA light treatment with a mean log reduction of >3·32 ± 0·2. Passaging of inactivated samples on permissive tissue showed no viral replication even after 9 days of incubation and three passages, confirming complete inactivation. The treatment also inhibited NAT detection by nucleic acid modification with a mean log reduction of 2·92 ± 0·87 PFU genomic equivalents. CONCLUSION: Amotosalen/UVA light treatment of SARS-CoV-2 spiked human plasma units efficiently and completely inactivated >3·32 ± 0·2 log of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, showing that such treatment could minimize the risk of transfusion-related SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Furocoumarins/pharmacology , Plasma/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Therapy , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
7.
Gut Pathog ; 13(1): 29, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By 27 June 2020, almost half a million people had died due to COVID-19 infections. The susceptibility and severity of infection vary significantly across nations. The contribution of chronic viral and parasitic infections to immune homeostasis remains a concern. By investigating the role of interferon (IFN)-γ, we conducted this study to understand the connection between the decrease in numbers and severity of COVID-19 cases within parasitic endemic regions. Our research included 375 patients referred to hospitals for diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. Patients were subjected to full investigations, in particular severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 nucleic acid and Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibody detection, stool examination, and quantitative IFN-γ measurement. RESULTS: The majority of the studied cases had chest manifestation either alone (54.7%) or in association with gastrointestinal (GIT) manifestations (19.7%), whereas 25.6% had GIT symptoms. We reported parasitic infections in 72.8% of mild COVID-19 cases and 20.7% of severe cases. Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Blastocyst, and Giardia were the most common parasitic infections among the COVID-19 cases studied. CONCLUSION: The remarkable adaptation of human immune response to COVID-19 infection by parasitic infections with high levels of IFN-γ was observed in moderate cases compared with low levels in extreme cases. The potential therapeutic efforts aimed at the role of parasitic infection in immune system modulation are needed if this hypothesis is confirmed.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011456

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia have imposed timely restrictions to minimize the infection spread, lower the risk for vulnerable groups, and reduce the pressure on healthcare services. The effectiveness of these measures has not been assessed comprehensively and, thereby, remains uncertain. Besides monitoring the number of COVID-19 cases diagnosed by molecular assays, the seroprevalence can serve as an indicator for the incidence rate among the general population. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence status of all healthy blood donors who attended one of the main largest hospital located in the western region of Saudi Arabia from 1 January to 31 May 2020. The study period covered two months prior to reporting the first COVID-19 case in the country on 2 March 2020. Importantly, it covered the period when "lock-down type" measures have been enforced. Samples were subjected to in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and microneutralization (MN). The sero statuses of all samples were confirmed negative, demonstrating the lack of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among blood donors during COVID-19 lockdown period. This study supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 restrictions have potential for limiting the extent of the infection.

9.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(5): 697-703, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly recognized zoonotic coronavirus. Current evidence confirms the role of dromedaries in primary human infections but does not explain the sporadic community cases. However, asymptomatic or subclinical cases could represent a possible source of infection in the community. METHODS: Archived human sera (7461) collected between 2011 and 2016 from healthy adult blood donors from 50 different nationalities in the western part of Saudi Arabia were obtained for MERS-CoV seroprevalence investigation. Samples were tested for MERS-CoV S1-specific antibodies (Abs) by ELISA and confirmed by testing for neutralizing Abs (nAbs) using both pseudotyped and live virus neutralization assays. RESULTS: Out of 7461 samples, 174 sera from individuals with 18 different nationalities were ELISA positive (2.3%, 95% CI 2.0-2.7). Presence of nAbs was confirmed in 17 samples (0.23%, 95% CI 0.1-0.4) of which one sample exhibited positivity in both neutralization assays. Confirmed seropositivity was identified in young (15-44 years) men and women from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Yemen, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, and India without significant preference. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing trend of MERS-CoV seroprevalence was observed in the general population in western Saudi Arabia, suggesting that asymptomatic or mild infections might exist and act as an unrecognized source of infection. Seropositivity of individuals from different nationalities underscores the potential MERS exportation outside of the Arabian Peninsula. Thus, enhanced and continuous surveillance is highly warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Blood Donors , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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