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1.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between socioeconomic and health status, and lifestyle and sickness presenteeism among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using an Internet-monitor survey was conducted in December, 2020 in Japan. Of 33,302 survey participants, we analyzed 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women) who reported experience with sickness presenteeism. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of sickness presenteeism associated with unmarried versus married status was 1.15. Respective figures for other variables were 1.11 for manual laboring work compared to desk work; 1.79 and 2.29 for loss of employment at the time the pandemic began and continuation of unemployment compared to maintaining employment during the pandemic; and 3.34 for a feeling of financial instability compared to stability. CONCLUSION: The issue of sickness presenteeism has become more prominent under the COVID-19 epidemic.

2.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(12): e944-e948, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between telecommuting environment and low back pain (LBP) among desk-based workers in Japan. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3663 desk-based, telecommuting workers. LBP was assessed using a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale. The telecommuting environment was evaluated using subjective questions. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate this association. RESULTS: The results of mixed-effects logistic model revealed that not having a place or room to concentrate on work, desk not well-lit enough for work, lack of space on the desk to work, not having enough legroom, and uncomfortable temperature and humidity conditions in the workspace were significantly associated with higher odds of LBP. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that telecommuting environment is associated with the prevalence of LBP.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 786400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581147

ABSTRACT

Background: The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has had large impacts on society, including people practicing social distancing. This behavioral response has increased loneliness. Loneliness not only increases the risk of psychiatric disorders, but also affects occupational mental health. To avoid the negative effects of isolation, it is important to have social contact with other people, especially family members. Employment and economic instability caused by COVID-19 may have also affected family relationships. It is important to understand the association between family relationships and loneliness in workers under the pandemic. Methods: We collected usable data from 27,036 Japanese workers who completed an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were asked how long they spend with members of their family during mealtimes or at home, and if they experienced loneliness; the latter was assessed by a single question. Other questions included whether participants lived with their spouse, or with someone in need of care. To estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of time with family associated with loneliness we used a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefecture of residence, with adjustments for age, sex, marital status, presence of a cohabitant requiring care, equivalent income, educational level, number of employees in the workplace, frequency of remote work, availability of someone for casual chat, smoking, drinking, time for leisure interests, and cumulative rates of COVID-19 in the prefecture. Results: Ten percent (2,750) of the 27,036 participants reported loneliness. The survey showed a significant negative correlation between time spent with family and loneliness (p < '0.001): participants who spent more time with family were less likely to feel loneliness. In addition, not living with a spouse and living with someone in need of care were associated with loneliness (not living with a spouse: p < 0.001; living with someone in need of care: p < 0.001). Conclusion: Loneliness under COVID-19 pandemic conditions was negatively associated with time spent with family members, with the converse result found for participants cohabiting with someone in need of care. These associations suggest the potential value of changes to working practices and interventions to combat loneliness.

4.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12308, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perceived organizational support (POS) and COVID-19 vaccination intention as well as the influence of the implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from an Internet survey of workers aged 20-65 years conducted in December 2020, during a period of widespread COVID-19 infection in Japan. RESULTS: Of the 23 846 participants in this survey, 1958 (8%) reported very high POS. In the group with very high POS, 836 (43%) workers wanted the COVID-19 vaccination; in contrast 1382 (36%) workers in the group with very low POS wanted the vaccination. POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.06). In the analysis with POS as a categorical variable, very high POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (reference: very low POS) (OR = 1.34). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.17). High POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (OR = 1.17) but not with vaccination intention after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: High POS during the COVID-19 pandemic increased employees' vaccination intention. The relationship between POS and vaccination intention was strongly influenced by implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. Implementing appropriate workplace infection prevention measures in the event of an emerging infectious disease outbreak may influence the vaccination behavior of employees, which may contribute to the acquisition of herd immunity in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Organizational Culture , Vaccination , Workplace , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Young Adult
5.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297065

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study examined the association between increased alcohol consumption and telecommuting, comparing employees who expressed a preference for telecommuting and those who did not. Methods We conducted an internet monitor survey. Responses from 20,395 of the 33,302 participants were included in the final sample. Participants were asked about their desire for and frequency of telecommuting, and about changes in alcohol consumption under the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Participants who telecommuted despite preferring not to do so reported significantly increased alcohol consumption, as revealed by a multivariate analysis (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.25-2.12). Participants who expressed a preference for telecommuting showed no such increase. Conclusions Under the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting that involves a mismatch with employee preference for way of working may be a new risk factor for problematic drinking.

6.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 10105395211064437, 2021 Dec 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571671

ABSTRACT

Although multilayered strategies including preventive behaviors should be adopted to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, evidence on the effectiveness of preventive behaviors against COVID-19 remains limited. This Internet-based prospective cohort study collected baseline data in November 2020 and follow-up data in February 2021, during the third wave of the epidemic in Japan. Among the 19 941 included participants, the percentages reporting that they always used a face mask, practiced hand washing/disinfection, gargling, and ensuring proper room ventilation were 85.4%, 36.0%, 51.1%, and 44.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that less frequently practicing hand washing/disinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.32), gargling (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.10-1.30), and ensuring proper room ventilation (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.26-1.52) were significantly associated with self-reported COVID-19-like illness (CLI). These results suggest that personal preventive behaviors may be effective in reducing CLI, even when universal masking is practiced.

7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between attending work while experiencing fever or cold symptoms and workers' socioeconomic background and company characteristics during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was performed. Of a total of 33,302 participants, 3676 workers who experienced fever or cold symptoms after April 2020 were included. The odds ratios (ORs) of attending work while sick associated with workers' socioeconomic background and company characteristics were evaluated using a multilevel logistic model. RESULTS: The OR of attending work while sick associated with a lack of policy prohibiting workers from working when ill was 2.75 (95% CI: 2.28 to 3.20, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that clear company policies on work and illness can be effective for preventing employees from attending work while sick.

8.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) play an important role in protecting oneself and others from infection. There are large regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates in Japan. We hypothesized that the local infection incidence may affect adherence to individual NPIs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among full-time workers in Japan in December 2020. The questionnaire asked the respondents to identify their habits regarding seven common NPIs (wearing masks, washing hands after the bathroom, disinfecting hands when entering indoors, gargling when returning home, ventilating the room, disinfecting or washing hands after touching frequently touched surfaces, carrying alcohol sanitizers when outdoors). RESULTS: A total of 27 036 participants were analyzed. Compared with the region with the lowest infection rate, five of the seven NPIs showed statistically significant trends across regional infection levels, the two exceptions being wearing masks and washing hands after the bathroom. Multivariate adjustment did not change these trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that NPIs were more prevalent in regions with higher incidence rates of COVID-19 in Japanese workers. The findings suggest that the implementation of NPIs was influenced not only by personal attributes but also by contextual effects of the local infection level.

9.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295643

ABSTRACT

Objective This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism in Japan. Methods An internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Data from 27,036 people were analyzed. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response “I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled.” The number of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used for analysis. Results The incidence rate ratio was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (2.26;95% confidence interval: 2.03–2.52) than those who did not require routine medical care. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.

10.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295529

ABSTRACT

The 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccination was carried out under unique situations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Examining the factors affecting vaccine inoculation in a pandemic situation may provide valuable insights. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccine intake. A cross-sectional study was conducted on workers aged 20–65 years on December 22–25, 2020, using data from an Internet survey. We set the presence or absence of 2020/2021 seasonal influenza vaccination as the dependent variable, and each aspect of sociodemographic factors, including gender, age, marital status, education, annual household income, and underlying disease, as independent variables. We performed a multilevel logistic regression analysis nested by residence. In total, 26,637 respondents (13,600 men, 13,037 women) participated, and a total of 11,404 individuals (42.8%) received the 2020/2021 influenza vaccine. Significantly more women than men were vaccinated, and the vaccination rate was higher among younger adults, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, and those with underlying disease. The current results suggested that the relationship between seasonal influenza vaccination behavior and sociodemographic factors differed from the results reported in previous studies in terms of age. These findings suggest that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, young people may have become more aware of the risk of contracting influenza and of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine. In addition, information interventions may have had a positive effect.

11.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295528

ABSTRACT

Background Restricting the movement of the public to gathering places and limiting close physical contact are effective measures against COVID-19 infection. In Japan, states of emergency have been declared in specific prefectures to reduce public movement and control COVID-19 transmission. We investigated how familiarity with the COVID-19 infection affected self-restraint related to outing behaviors during state of emergency declarations in Japan. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among workers aged 20–65 years using data from an internet survey. The baseline survey was conducted on December 22–25, 2020, and a follow-up survey was on February 18–19, 2021. There were 19,941 participants who completed both surveys and were included in the final analysis. We set self-restraint regarding outing behaviors after the second state of emergency was declared in January 2021 as the dependent variable, and levels of familiarity with COVID-19 infection as independent variables. Odds ratios were estimated using multilevel logistic analyses. Results Significant differences by familiarity with COVID-19 infection were identified: compared with people without a history of COVID-19 or close contact with cases of confirmed COVID-19, and those whose acquaintances had not been diagnosed with COVID-19, people with a history of COVID-19 did not refrain from most outing behaviors. People with an acquaintance diagnosed with COVID-19 were significantly more likely to refrain from most outing behaviors. There was no significant difference in any outing behavior for people with a history of close contact only. Conclusions To maximize the effect of emergency declarations, health authorities should disseminate information for each person in the target population, taking into account potential differences related to the familiarity with the infection.

12.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295432

ABSTRACT

Background We examined the association between socioeconomic and health status, and lifestyle and sickness presenteeism among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods A cross-sectional study using an Internet-monitor survey was conducted in December, 2020 in Japan. Of 33,302 survey participants, we analyzed 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women ) who reported experience with sickness presenteeism. Results The odds ratio ( OR ) of sickness presenteeism associated with unmarried versus married status was 1.15. Respective figures for other variables were 1.11 for manual laboring work compared to desk work;1.79 and 2.29 for loss of employment at the time the pandemic began and continuation of unemployment compared to maintaining employment during the pandemic;and 3.34 for a feeling of financial instability compared to stability. Conclusion The issue of sickness presenteeism has become more prominent under the COVID-19 epidemic .

13.
Ind Health ; 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523651

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary for each individual to adopt infection prevention behavior. We investigated the effect of infection control measures implemented in the workplace on personal infection prevention behavior. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey through the Internet from December 22 to 25, 2020, during which period coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was spreading. Among respondents aged 20 to 65 years (n=27,036), 21,915 workers were included in the analysis. The results showed that as the number of infection control measures in the workplace increased, implementation of infection prevention behavior by individuals also significantly increased. However, the relationship differed depending on the type of personal infection prevention behavior. Specifically, infection control measures against COVID-19 in the workplace may affect personal infection prevention behavior. Implementation of infection control measures in the workplace increases awareness of the importance of individual infection prevention behavior and its implementation by all individuals. These findings may be applicable not only to COVID-19 measures but also to responses to other emerging infections and seasonal influenza.

14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497171

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There is limited information about the association between workplace psychosocial factors and general worker mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, we examined how anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace affected the association between job demands and psychological distress (PD). Method: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in December 2020. The final analyzed sample was 27,036. The dependent variable of PD was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Job demands were assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire. Feelings of anxiety were assessed by participants' responses to the following question: "Do you feel anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace?" We used a two-level regression adjusting for prefectural level: each individual-level variable at level 1 was nested into each prefecture at level 2, stratified by presence of anxiety. Results: A total of 50.5% of participants felt anxious about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace. The interaction between anxiety and job demands was significant. Job demands were positively associated with PD. In the stratified analysis, the associations were stronger among employees who experienced anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace than among those who did not. Conclusion: The association between job demands and PD may be strengthened by anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Workplace
15.
Prev Med Rep ; : 101621, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492486

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between loneliness and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional online study from 22 to 26 December 2020. A total of 27,036 participants, all employed at the time, were included in the analysis. Participants were asked if they felt loneliness in a single-item question. The Kessler 6 (K6) was used to assess psychological distress, defined as mild for K6 scores of 5 to 12 and severe for 13 or higher. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with loneliness were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefecture of residence, with adjustment for age, sex, marital status, equivalent income, educational level, smoking, alcohol consumption, job type, number of workplace employees, and cumulative incidence rate of COVID-19 in the prefecture. Communication with friends, acquaintances, and family was strongly associated with psychological distress, so we adjusted for these factors and eating meals alone. Results showed a significant association between loneliness and psychological distress (OR = 36.62, 95% CI = 32.95-40.69). Lack of friends to talk to, lack of acquaintances to ask for help, and lack of people to communicate with through social networking sites were all strongly associated with psychological distress, as were family time and solitary eating. Even after adjusting for these factors, loneliness remained strongly associated with psychological distress (OR = 29.36, 95% CI = 26.44-32.98). The association between loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic and psychological distress indicates the need for intervention.

16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(9): e565-e570, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the physical work environment and work function while working from home (WFH). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data from 5760 workers who worked from home at least 1 day a month were analyzed. The physical work environment while WFH was used as an exposure factor. The presence of work functioning impairment was measured using Work Functioning impairment Scale (WFun). Mixed-effects logistic regression was used with the prefecture of residence as a random effect. RESULTS: Work functioning impairment was significantly associated with a "No" response to recommended environments. The highest odds ratio (OR) of work functioning impairment was associated with a "No" response to "There is enough light to do my work" (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73 to 2.35, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Improving work environments may prevent negative health effects and improve productivity while WFH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12281, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting has become a new way of working that has not only changed individuals' work, but also their health and lifestyle. We examined the relationship between telecommuting frequency and unhealthy dietary habits among Japanese workers. METHODS: A total of 33,302 workers completed an Internet survey about telecommuting and dietary habits. Data from 13,468 office workers who telecommuted were analyzed. Telecommuting frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic was extracted from a questionnaire. The odds ratios (ORs) of four types of dietary habits, namely, skipping breakfast, solitary eating, lower meal frequency, and meal substitution associated with telecommuting frequency were estimated using multilevel logistic regression nested in the prefecture of residence to control for differences in residential area. RESULTS: The multivariate OR of skipping breakfast was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03-1.29, p = .013) for participants who telecommuted in excess of four days per week compared to those who rarely telecommuted. Similarly, the OR of solitary eating, lower meal frequency and meal substitution were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.28-1.63, p < .001), 2.39 (95% CI: 1.66-3.44, p < .001), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.04-1.51, p = .015) for those who telecommuted in excess of four days per week compared to those who rarely telecommuted. There was a statistically significant increase in the dose-response trend in ORs of solitary eating (p for trend <.001), lower meal frequency (p for trend <.001), and meal substitution (p for trend = .001) with increasing telecommuting frequency. CONCLUSION: Telecommuters may develop unhealthy dietary habits, indicating the need for strategies to help telecommuters manage their nutrition and diet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Feeding Behavior , Meals , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio
18.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 94, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have used contact tracing apps, including Japan's voluntary-use contact-confirming application (COCOA). The current study aimed to identify industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of this COVID-19 contact tracing app. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of full-time workers used an online survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of industry and workplace characteristics with contact tracing app use. RESULTS: Of the 27,036 participants, 25.1% had downloaded the COCOA. Workers in the public service (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.45) and information technology (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20-1.58) industries were more likely to use the app than were those in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, app usage was less common among workers in the retail and wholesale (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99) and food/beverage (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) industries, but further adjustment for company size attenuated these associations. Workers at larger companies were more likely to use the app. Compared with permanent employees, the odds of using the app were higher for managers and civil servants but lower for those who were self-employed. CONCLUSIONS: Downloading of COCOA among Japanese workers was insufficient; thus, the mitigating effect of COCOA on the COVID-19 pandemic is considered to be limited. One possible reason for the under-implementation of the contact tracing app in the retail and wholesale and food/beverage industries is small company size, as suggested by the fully adjusted model results. An awareness campaign should be conducted to promote the widespread use of the contact tracing app in these industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Industry/classification , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(11): 907-912, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relationship between the intensity of home-based telework and work engagement. METHODS: This cross-sectional study using a self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted from December 22 to 25, 2020, in Japan. The subjects were asked single-item questions about the intensity of telework and three-item questions about work engagement using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Coefficients were estimated using a multilevel regression model nested by the prefecture of residence and adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: High-intensity (4 or more days per week) telework was not associated with high work engagement for men or women. In contrast, low and moderate intensity (3 days per week to once per month) were associated with high work engagement. The results were consistent when stratified by sex. CONCLUSIONS: Reasonable-intensity telework may have beneficial effects on work engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Teleworking , Work Engagement
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2021 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294650

ABSTRACT

Many factors are related to vaccination intentions. However, gender differences in the determinants of intention to get the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine have not been fully investigated. This study examined gender differences in the determinants of willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine among the working-age population in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Japanese citizens aged 20-65 years using an online self-administered questionnaire in December 2020. Logistic regression analysis was performed. Among 27,036 participants (13,814 men and 13,222 women), the percentage who were willing to get the COVID-19 vaccine was lower among women than among men (33.0% vs. 41.8%). Age and education level showed a gender gap regarding the association with willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine: men who were older or had a higher level of education were more willing to get the vaccine, whereas women aged 30-49 years and those with a higher level of education showed a relatively low willingness to get the vaccine. For both men and women, marriage, higher annual household income, underlying disease, current smoking, vaccination for influenza during the current season, and fear of COVID-19 transmission were linked to a higher likelihood of being willing to get the COVID-19 vaccine. These findings give important insight into identifying target groups in need of intervention regarding COVID-19 vaccination, especially among women. Providing education about COVID-19 and influenza vaccination in the workplace may be an effective strategy to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake.

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