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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2145800, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669324

ABSTRACT

Importance: Preterm birth, particularly extremely preterm birth, has been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Research during SARS-CoV-2-related lockdowns revealed reductions in the more severe subtypes of preterm birth in some countries, suggesting the presence of preventable risk factors, such as infectious diseases or social behavior. Seasonality may provide a similar means of assessing natural changes in the daily life of pregnant individuals that were similar to those experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Objective: To evaluate the association between seasonality and extremely preterm birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide cohort study included 1 136 143 pregnancies in Denmark with onset between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2016, in which the fetuses survived 21 completed weeks of gestation. Pregnancies were followed up until preterm birth, fetal death, or 37 completed weeks of gestation. Data were analyzed from September 2020 to September 2021. Exposures: Season during gestation (primary exposure) and season of pregnancy onset. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome of extremely preterm birth was defined as a live birth occurring between 22 weeks, 0 days' gestation and 27 weeks, 6 days' gestation. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for season during gestation and season of pregnancy onset, with adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors. Results: Among 662 338 pregnant individuals, the median age at pregnancy onset was 30.0 years (IQR, 6.0 years). Of 1 136 143 pregnancies, 2009 extremely preterm births (cumulative incidence, 0.18%) were identified during follow-up. Season during gestation was associated with extremely preterm birth, with cumulative incidences of 0.17% (95% CI, 0.16%-0.19%) in spring, 0.18% (95% CI, 0.17%-0.20%) in summer, 0.20% (95% CI, 0.18%-0.21%) in autumn, and 0.16% (95% CI, 0.14%-0.17%) in winter. Compared with winter, the adjusted HRs (AHRs) for the risk of extremely preterm birth were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.97-1.26) for spring, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02-1.31) for summer, and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.10-1.42) for autumn. The number of extremely preterm births associated with the increased risk in the spring, summer, and autumn was 56.1 (95% CI, 18.2-99.7), representing 2.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-5.0%) of all extremely preterm births in the study. Season of pregnancy onset was not associated with the risk of extremely preterm birth in spring (AHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.01) or summer (AHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.03) compared with winter, but a slight increase in risk was observed in autumn (AHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) compared with winter. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large, national cohort study, seasonality was associated with 2.8% of all extremely preterm births. Season during gestation was associated with the rate of extremely preterm birth, suggesting the presence of potential risk factors associated with season that may be preventable. Further research to identify risk factors for extremely preterm birth associated with seasonality is warranted.


Subject(s)
Infant, Extremely Premature , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Seasons , Adult , Cohort Studies , Denmark , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Proportional Hazards Models
2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 289-292, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633307

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term sensitivity for detection of total antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 METHODS: From week 41, 2020, through week 26, 2021, all Danish blood donations were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the Wantai assay. The results were linked with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results from the Danish Microbiological Database (MiBa). RESULTS: During the study period, 105,646 non-vaccinated Danish blood donors were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and 3,806 (3.6%) had a positive PCR test before the blood donation. Among the donors with a positive PCR test, 94.2% subsequently also had a positive antibody test. The time between the positive PCR test and the antibody test was up to 15 months and there was no evidence of a decline in proportion with detectable antibodies over time. A negative serological result test was associated with a higher incidence of re-infection (Incidence Rate Ratio = 0.102 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.039-0.262)). CONCLUSION: Among healthy blood donors, 94.2% developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after infection, and a lack of detectable antibodies was associated with re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this multinational study was to assess the development of adverse mental health symptoms among individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 in the general population by acute infection severity up to 16 months after diagnosis. METHODS Participants consisted of 247 249 individuals from seven cohorts across six countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden) recruited from April 2020 through August 2021. We used multivariable Poisson regression to contrast symptom-prevalence of depression, anxiety, COVID-19 related distress, and poor sleep quality among individuals with and without a diagnosis of COVID-19 at entry to respective cohorts by time (0-16 months) from diagnosis. We also applied generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis to test differences in repeated measures of mental health symptoms before and after COVID-19 diagnosis among individuals ever diagnosed with COVID-19 over time. FINDINGS A total of 9979 individuals (4%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period and presented overall with a higher symptom burden of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.03-1.36) and poorer sleep quality (1.13, 1.03-1.24) but not with higher levels of symptoms of anxiety or COVID-19 related distress compared with individuals without a COVID-19 diagnosis. While the prevalence of depression and COVID-19 related distress attenuated with time, the trajectories varied significantly by COVID-19 acute infection severity. Individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 but never bedridden due to their illness were consistently at lower risks of depression and anxiety (PR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91 and 0.77, 0.63-0.94, respectively), while patients bedridden for more than 7 days were persistently at higher risks of symptoms of depression and anxiety (PR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.05 and 1.43, 1.26-1.63, respectively) throughout the 16-month study period. CONCLUSION Acute infection severity is a key determinant of long-term mental morbidity among COVID-19 patients.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 219-228, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies presenting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection fatality rate (IFR) for healthy individuals are warranted. We estimate IFR by age and comorbidity status using data from a large serosurvey among Danish blood donors and nationwide data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality. METHODS: Danish blood donors aged 17-69 years donating blood October 2020-February 2021 were tested with a commercial SARS-CoV-2 total antibody assay. IFR was estimated for weeks 11 to 42, 2020 and week 43, 2020 to week 6, 2021, representing the first 2 waves of COVID-19 epidemic in Denmark. RESULTS: In total, 84944 blood donors were tested for antibodies. The seroprevalence was 2% in October 2020 and 7% in February 2021. Among 3898039 Danish residents aged 17-69 years, 249 deaths were recorded. The IFR was low for people <51 years without comorbidity during the 2 waves (combined IFR=3.36 per 100000 infections). The IFR was below 3‰ for people aged 61-69 years without comorbidity. IFR increased with age and comorbidity but declined from the first to second wave. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, the IFR was very low among people <51 years without comorbidity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1175-1184, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516855

ABSTRACT

Using provisional or opportunistic data, three nationwide studies (The Netherlands, the USA and Denmark) have identified a reduction in preterm or extremely preterm births during periods of COVID-19 restrictions. However, none of the studies accounted for perinatal deaths. To determine whether the reduction in extremely preterm births, observed in Denmark during the COVID-19 lockdown, could be the result of an increase in perinatal deaths and to assess the impact of extended COVID-19 restrictions, we performed a nationwide Danish register-based prevalence proportion study. We examined all singleton pregnancies delivered in Denmark during the COVID-19 strict lockdown calendar periods (March 12-April 14, 2015-2020, N = 31,164 births) and the extended calendar periods of COVID-19 restrictions (February 27-September 30, 2015-2020, N = 214,862 births). The extremely preterm birth rate was reduced (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.86) during the strict lockdown period in 2020, while perinatal mortality was not significantly different. During the extended period of restrictions in 2020, the extremely preterm birth rate was marginally reduced, and a significant reduction in the stillbirth rate (OR 0.69, 0.50 to 0.95) was observed. No changes in early neonatal mortality rates were found.Conclusion: Stillbirth and extremely preterm birth rates were reduced in Denmark during the period of COVID-19 restrictions and lockdown, respectively, suggesting that aspects of these containment and control measures confer an element of protection. The present observational study does not allow for causal inference; however, the results support the design of studies to ascertain whether behavioural or social changes for pregnant women may improve pregnancy outcomes. What is Known: • The aetiologies of preterm birth and stillbirth are multifaceted and linked to a wide range of socio-demographic, medical, obstetric, foetal, psychosocial and environmental factors. • The COVID-19 lockdown saw a reduction in extremely preterm births in Denmark and other high-income countries. An urgent question is whether this reduction can be explained by increased perinatal mortality. What is New: • The reduction in extremely preterm births during the Danish COVID-19 lockdown was not a consequence of increased perinatal mortality, which remained unchanged during this period. • The stillbirth rate was reduced throughout the extended period of COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2962-e2969, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of individuals succumbing to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are elderly, infection fatality rate (IFR) estimates for the age group ≥70 years are still scarce. To this end, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among retired blood donors and combined it with national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survey data to provide reliable population-based IFR estimates for this age group. METHODS: We identified 60 926 retired blood donors aged ≥70 years in the rosters of 3 regionwide Danish blood banks and invited them to fill in a questionnaire on COVID-19-related symptoms and behaviors. Among 24 861 (40.8%) responders, we invited a random sample of 3200 individuals for blood testing. Overall, 1201 (37.5%) individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Wantai) and compared with 1110 active blood donors aged 17-69 years. Seroprevalence 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Among retired (aged ≥70 years) and active (aged 17-69 years) blood donors, adjusted seroprevalences were 1.4% (95% CI, .3-2.5%) and 2.5% (95% CI, 1.3-3.8%), respectively. Using available population data on COVID-19-related fatalities, IFRs for patients aged ≥70 years and for 17-69 years were estimated at 5.4% (95% CI, 2.7-6.4%) and .083% (95% CI, .054-.18%), respectively. Only 52.4% of SARS-CoV-2-seropositive retired blood donors reported having been sick since the start of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 IFR in the age group >69 years is estimated to be 65 times the IFR for people aged 18-69 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314657

ABSTRACT

The everyday lives of Danish inhabitants have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, e.g., by social distancing, which was employed by the government in March 2020 to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the pandemic has entailed economic consequences for many people. This study aims to assess changes in physical and mental health-related quality of life (MCS, PCS), in stress levels, and quality of sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify factors that impact such changes, using a prospective national cohort study including 26,453 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study who answered a health questionnaire before the pandemic and during the pandemic. Descriptive statistics, multivariable linear and multinomial logistic regression analyses were applied. A worsening of MCS and quality of sleep was found, and an overall decrease in stress levels was observed. PCS was decreased in men and slightly increased in women. The extent of health changes was mainly affected by changes in job situation, type of job, previous use of anti-depressive medication and the participants' level of personal stamina. Thus, living under the unusual circumstances that persisted during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the health of the general population. This may, in time, constitute a public health problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
8.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 106(1): 93-95, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060604

ABSTRACT

To explore the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on premature birth rates in Denmark, a nationwide register-based prevalence proportion study was conducted on all 31 180 live singleton infants born in Denmark between 12 March and 14 April during 2015-2020.The distribution of gestational ages (GAs) was significantly different (p=0.004) during the lockdown period compared with the previous 5 years and was driven by a significantly lower rate of extremely premature children during the lockdown compared with the corresponding mean rate for the same dates in the previous years (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.40, p<0.001). No significant difference between the lockdown and previous years was found for other GA categories.The reasons for this decrease are unclear. However, the lockdown has provided a unique opportunity to examine possible factors related to prematurity. Identification of possible causal mechanisms might stimulate changes in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2962-e2969, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of individuals succumbing to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are elderly, infection fatality rate (IFR) estimates for the age group ≥70 years are still scarce. To this end, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among retired blood donors and combined it with national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survey data to provide reliable population-based IFR estimates for this age group. METHODS: We identified 60 926 retired blood donors aged ≥70 years in the rosters of 3 regionwide Danish blood banks and invited them to fill in a questionnaire on COVID-19-related symptoms and behaviors. Among 24 861 (40.8%) responders, we invited a random sample of 3200 individuals for blood testing. Overall, 1201 (37.5%) individuals were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (Wantai) and compared with 1110 active blood donors aged 17-69 years. Seroprevalence 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Among retired (aged ≥70 years) and active (aged 17-69 years) blood donors, adjusted seroprevalences were 1.4% (95% CI, .3-2.5%) and 2.5% (95% CI, 1.3-3.8%), respectively. Using available population data on COVID-19-related fatalities, IFRs for patients aged ≥70 years and for 17-69 years were estimated at 5.4% (95% CI, 2.7-6.4%) and .083% (95% CI, .054-.18%), respectively. Only 52.4% of SARS-CoV-2-seropositive retired blood donors reported having been sick since the start of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 IFR in the age group >69 years is estimated to be 65 times the IFR for people aged 18-69 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Denmark , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(2): 249-253, 2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has tremendous consequences for our societies. Knowledge of the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to accurately monitor the spread of the epidemic and to calculate the infection fatality rate (IFR). These measures may help the authorities make informed decisions and adjust the current societal interventions. The objective was to perform nationwide real-time seroprevalence surveying among blood donors as a tool to estimate previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and the population-based IFR. METHODS: Danish blood donors aged 17-69 years giving blood 6 April to 3 May were tested for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G antibodies using a commercial lateral flow test. Antibody status was compared between geographical areas, and an estimate of the IFR was calculated. Seroprevalence was adjusted for assay sensitivity and specificity taking the uncertainties of the test validation into account when reporting the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The first 20 640 blood donors were tested, and a combined adjusted seroprevalence of 1.9% (95% CI, .8-2.3) was calculated. The seroprevalence differed across areas. Using available data on fatalities and population numbers, a combined IFR in patients <70 years is estimated at 89 per 100 000 (95% CI, 72-211) infections. CONCLUSIONS: The IFR was estimated to be slightly lower than previously reported from other countries not using seroprevalence data. The IFR is likely severalfold lower than the current estimate. We have initiated real-time nationwide anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveying of blood donations as a tool in monitoring the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
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