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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119893119, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778688

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 triggering the COVID-19 pandemic ranks as arguably the greatest medical emergency of the last century. COVID-19 has highlighted health disparities both within and between countries and will leave a lasting impact on global society. Nonetheless, substantial investment in life sciences over recent decades has facilitated a rapid scientific response with innovations in viral characterization, testing, and sequencing. Perhaps most remarkably, this permitted the development of highly effective vaccines, which are being distributed globally at unprecedented speed. In contrast, drug treatments for the established disease have delivered limited benefits so far. Innovative and rapid approaches in the design and execution of large-scale clinical trials and repurposing of existing drugs have saved many lives; however, many more remain at risk. In this review we describe challenges and unmet needs, discuss existing therapeutics, and address future opportunities. Consideration is given to factors that have hindered drug development in order to support planning for the next pandemic challenge and to allow rapid and cost-effective development of new therapeutics with equitable delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Development , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Thorax ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769953

ABSTRACT

Given the large numbers of people infected and high rates of ongoing morbidity, research is clearly required to address the needs of adult survivors of COVID-19 living with ongoing symptoms (long COVID). To help direct resource and research efforts, we completed a research prioritisation process incorporating views from adults with ongoing symptoms of COVID-19, carers, clinicians and clinical researchers. The final top 10 research questions were agreed at an independently mediated workshop and included: identifying underlying mechanisms of long COVID, establishing diagnostic tools, understanding trajectory of recovery and evaluating the role of interventions both during the acute and persistent phases of the illness.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309642

ABSTRACT

NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific CD8 + T-cell responses are considered among the most dominant in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. We found strong association of this response with mild disease. Analysis of NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cell clones and single cell sequencing were performed concurrently, with functional avidity and anti-viral efficacy assessed using an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection system, and were correlated with TCR usage, transcriptome signature, and disease severity (acute N=77, convalescent N=52). We demonstrated a beneficial association of NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cells in COVID-19 disease progression, linked with expansion of T-cell precursors, high functional avidity and anti-viral effector function. Broad immune memory pools were narrowed post-infection but NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cells were maintained 6 months after infection with preserved anti-viral efficacy to the SARS-CoV-2 Victoria strain, as well as new Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants. Our data shows that NP 105-113 -B*07:02 specific T-cell responses associate with mild disease and high anti-viral efficacy, pointing to inclusion for future vaccine design.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(3): 255-266, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysregulated inflammation is associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19. We aimed to assess the efficacy of namilumab (a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor inhibitor) and infliximab (a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor) in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, to prioritise agents for phase 3 trials. METHODS: In this randomised, multicentre, multi-arm, multistage, parallel-group, open-label, adaptive, phase 2, proof-of-concept trial (CATALYST), we recruited patients (aged ≥16 years) admitted to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations of 40 mg/L or greater, at nine hospitals in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned with equal probability to usual care or usual care plus a single intravenous dose of namilumab (150 mg) or infliximab (5 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified by care location within the hospital (ward vs intensive care unit [ICU]). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was improvement in inflammation, measured by CRP concentration over time, analysed using Bayesian multilevel models. This trial is now complete and is registered with ISRCTN, 40580903. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021, we screened 299 patients and 146 were enrolled and randomly assigned to usual care (n=54), namilumab (n=57), or infliximab (n=35). For the primary outcome, 45 patients in the usual care group were compared with 52 in the namilumab group, and 29 in the usual care group were compared with 28 in the infliximab group. The probabilities that the interventions were superior to usual care alone in reducing CRP concentration over time were 97% for namilumab and 15% for infliximab; the point estimates for treatment-time interactions were -0·09 (95% CI -0·19 to 0·00) for namilumab and 0·06 (-0·05 to 0·17) for infliximab. 134 adverse events occurred in 30 (55%) of 55 patients in the namilumab group compared with 145 in 29 (54%) of 54 in the usual care group. 102 adverse events occurred in 20 (69%) of 29 patients in the infliximab group compared with 112 in 17 (50%) of 34 in the usual care group. Death occurred in six (11%) patients in the namilumab group compared with ten (19%) in the usual care group, and in four (14%) in the infliximab group compared with five (15%) in the usual care group. INTERPRETATION: Namilumab, but not infliximab, showed proof-of-concept evidence for reduction in inflammation-as measured by CRP concentration-in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Namilumab should be prioritised for further investigation in COVID-19. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296652

ABSTRACT

Background: There are currently no effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for Long-COVID. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focussed on previously described four recovery clusters five months after hospital discharge, their underlying inflammatory profiles and relationship with clinical outcomes at one year. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, recruiting adults hospitalised with COVID-19 across the UK. Recovery was assessed using patient reported outcomes measures (PROMs), physical performance, and organ function at five-months and one-year after hospital discharge. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was performed for patient-perceived recovery at one-year. Cluster analysis was performed using clustering large applications (CLARA) k-medoids approach using clinical outcomes at five-months. Inflammatory protein profiling from plasma at the five-month visit was performed. Findings 2320 participants have been assessed at five months after discharge and 807 participants have completed both five-month and one-year visits. Of these, 35.6% were female, mean age 58.7 (SD 12.5) years, and 27.8% received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The proportion of patients reporting full recovery was unchanged between five months 501/165 (25.6%) and one year 232/804 (28.9%). Factors associated with being less likely to report full recovery at one year were: female sex OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.46-0.99), obesity OR 0.50 (95%CI 0.34-0.74) and IMV OR 0.42 (95%CI 0.23-0.76). Cluster analysis (n=1636) corroborated the previously reported four clusters: very severe, severe, moderate/cognitive, mild relating to the severity of physical, mental health and cognitive impairments at five months in a larger sample. There was elevation of inflammatory mediators of tissue damage and repair in both the very severe and the moderate/cognitive clusters compared to the mild cluster including interleukin-6 which was elevated in both comparisons. Overall, there was a substantial deficit in median (IQR) EQ5D-5L utility index from pre-COVID (retrospective assessment) 0.88 (0.74-1.00), five months 0.74 (0.60-0.88) to one year: 0.74 (0.59-0.88), with minimal improvements across all outcome measures at one-year after discharge in the whole cohort and within each of the four clusters. Interpretation The sequelae of a hospital admission with COVID-19 remain substantial one year after discharge across a range of health domains with the minority in our cohort feeling fully recovered. Patient perceived health-related quality of life remains reduced at one year compared to pre-hospital admission. Systematic inflammation and obesity are potential treatable traits that warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295461

ABSTRACT

Background: Excessive inflammation is pathogenic in pneumonitis associated to severe COVID-19. Neutrophils are among the most abundantly present leukocytes in the inflammatory infiltrates and may form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) under the local influence of cytokines. NETs constitute a defence mechanism against bacteria but have also been shown to mediate tissue damage in a number of diseases. <br><br>Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, sixteen immediate post-mortem lung biopsies were methodologically analysed as exploratory and validation cohorts. NETs were quantitatively analysed by multiplexed immunofluorescence and correlated with local levels of IL-8 mRNA expression and the density of CD8+ T-cell infiltration. SARS-CoV-2 presence in tissue was quantified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.<br><br>Findings: NETs were found in the lung interstitium and surrounding the bronchiolar epithelium with interindividual and spatial heterogeneity. NET density did not correlate with SARS-CoV-2 tissue viral load. NETs were associated with local IL-8 mRNA levels. NETs were also detected in pulmonary thrombi and in only one out of eight liver tissues in spatial fashion. NET focal presence negatively correlated with CD8+ T-cell infiltration in the lungs. <br><br>Interpretation: Abundant neutrophils undergoing NETosis are found in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19, showing no correlation with viral loads. The strong association between NETs and IL-8 focal expression points to this chemokine as the potential causative factor. The function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 may be interfered by the presence of NETs.<br><br>Funding Information: This study was supported by Banco Bilbao Vizcaya (BBVA) Foundation, “Ayudas a Equipos de Investigación Científica SARS-CoV-2 y COVID-19”. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: I.M. reports receiving commercial research grants from BMS, Bioncotech, Alligator, Pfizer, Leadartis and Roche;has received speakers bureau honoraria from MSD;and is a consultant or advisory board member for BMS, Roche, Genmab, F-Star, Bioncotech, Bayer, Numab, Pieris, Alligator, and Merck Serono. C.E.A reports research grants from AstraZeneca. All other authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Navarra, Spain (Approval 2020.192). Tissue collections were obtained with consent from a first-degree relative, following a protocol approved by the ethics committee of the University of Navarra (Protocol 2020.192p).

7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294849

ABSTRACT

Background The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health, and employment following hospitalisation is poorly understood. Methods PHOSP-COVID is a multi-centre, UK, observational study of adults discharged from hospital with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 involving an assessment between two- and seven-months later including detailed symptom, physiological and biochemical testing. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for patient-perceived recovery with age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities, and severity of acute illness as co-variates. Cluster analysis was performed using outcomes for breathlessness, fatigue, mental health, cognition and physical function. Findings We report findings of 1077 patients discharged in 2020, from the assessment undertaken a median 5 [IQR4 to 6] months later: 36% female, mean age 58 [SD 13] years, 69% white ethnicity, 27% mechanical ventilation, and 50% had at least two co-morbidities. At follow-up only 29% felt fully recovered, 20% had a new disability, and 19% experienced a health-related change in occupation. Factors associated with failure to recover were female, middle-age, white ethnicity, two or more co-morbidities, and more severe acute illness. The magnitude of the persistent health burden was substantial and weakly related to acute severity. Four clusters were identified with different severities of mental and physical health impairment: 1) Very severe (17%), 2) Severe (21%), 3) Moderate with cognitive impairment (17%), 4) Mild (46%), with 3%, 7%, 36% and 43% feeling fully recovered, respectively. Persistent systemic inflammation determined by C-reactive protein was related to cluster severity, but not acute illness severity. Interpretation We identified factors related to recovery from a hospital admission with COVID-19 and four different phenotypes relating to the severity of physical, mental, and cognitive health five months later. The implications for clinical care include the potential to stratify care and the need for a pro-active approach with wide-access to COVID-19 holistic clinical services. Funding: UKRI and NIHR

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294398

ABSTRACT

Background The longitudinal trajectories of cardiopulmonary abnormalities and symptoms following infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are unclear. We sought to describe their natural history in previously hospitalised patients, compare this with controls, and assess the relationship between symptoms and cardiopulmonary impairment at 6 months post-COVID-19. Methods Fifty-eight patients and thirty matched controls underwent symptom-questionnaires, cardiac and lung magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), and spirometry at 3 months following COVID-19. Of them, forty-six patients returned for follow-up assessments at 6 months. Findings At 2-3 months, 83% of patients had at least one cardiopulmonary symptom versus 33% of controls. Patients and controls had comparable biventricular volumes and function. Native cardiac T 1 (marker of inflammation) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, marker of focal fibrosis) were increased in patients. Sixty percent of patients had lung parenchymal abnormalities on CMR and 55% had reduced peak oxygen consumption (pVO 2 ) on CPET. By 6 months, 53% of patients remained symptomatic. On CMR, indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (−4·3 mls/m 2 , P =0·005) decreased and RV ejection fraction (+3·2%, P =0·0003) increased. Native T 1 and LGE improved and was comparable to controls. Lung parenchymal abnormalities and peak VO 2 , although better, were abnormal in patients versus controls. 31% had reduced pVO 2 secondary to fatigue and submaximal tests. Cardiopulmonary symptoms in patients did not associate with CMR, lung function, or CPET measures. Interpretation In patients, cardiopulmonary abnormalities improve over time, though some measures remain abnormal relative to controls. Persistent symptoms at 6 months post-COVID-19 did not associate with objective measures of cardiopulmonary health. Funding NIHR Oxford and Oxford Health BRC, Oxford BHF CRE, UKRI and Wellcome Trust.

9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1275-1287, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. METHODS: The Post-hospitalisation COVID-19 study (PHOSP-COVID) is a multicentre, long-term follow-up study of adults (aged ≥18 years) discharged from hospital in the UK with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19, involving an assessment between 2 and 7 months after discharge, including detailed recording of symptoms, and physiological and biochemical testing. Multivariable logistic regression was done for the primary outcome of patient-perceived recovery, with age, sex, ethnicity, body-mass index, comorbidities, and severity of acute illness as covariates. A post-hoc cluster analysis of outcomes for breathlessness, fatigue, mental health, cognitive impairment, and physical performance was done using the clustering large applications k-medoids approach. The study is registered on the ISRCTN Registry (ISRCTN10980107). FINDINGS: We report findings for 1077 patients discharged from hospital between March 5 and Nov 30, 2020, who underwent assessment at a median of 5·9 months (IQR 4·9-6·5) after discharge. Participants had a mean age of 58 years (SD 13); 384 (36%) were female, 710 (69%) were of white ethnicity, 288 (27%) had received mechanical ventilation, and 540 (50%) had at least two comorbidities. At follow-up, only 239 (29%) of 830 participants felt fully recovered, 158 (20%) of 806 had a new disability (assessed by the Washington Group Short Set on Functioning), and 124 (19%) of 641 experienced a health-related change in occupation. Factors associated with not recovering were female sex, middle age (40-59 years), two or more comorbidities, and more severe acute illness. The magnitude of the persistent health burden was substantial but only weakly associated with the severity of acute illness. Four clusters were identified with different severities of mental and physical health impairment (n=767): very severe (131 patients, 17%), severe (159, 21%), moderate along with cognitive impairment (127, 17%), and mild (350, 46%). Of the outcomes used in the cluster analysis, all were closely related except for cognitive impairment. Three (3%) of 113 patients in the very severe cluster, nine (7%) of 129 in the severe cluster, 36 (36%) of 99 in the moderate cluster, and 114 (43%) of 267 in the mild cluster reported feeling fully recovered. Persistently elevated serum C-reactive protein was positively associated with cluster severity. INTERPRETATION: We identified factors related to not recovering after hospital admission with COVID-19 at 6 months after discharge (eg, female sex, middle age, two or more comorbidities, and more acute severe illness), and four different recovery phenotypes. The severity of physical and mental health impairments were closely related, whereas cognitive health impairments were independent. In clinical care, a proactive approach is needed across the acute severity spectrum, with interdisciplinary working, wide access to COVID-19 holistic clinical services, and the potential to stratify care. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation and National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Mental Health , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101159, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal trajectories of cardiopulmonary abnormalities and symptoms following infection with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are unclear. We sought to describe their natural history in previously hospitalised patients, compare this with controls, and assess the relationship between symptoms and cardiopulmonary impairment at 6 months post-COVID-19. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients and thirty matched controls (single visit), recruited between 14th March - 25th May 2020, underwent symptom-questionnaires, cardiac and lung magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), and spirometry at 3 months following COVID-19. Of them, forty-six patients returned for follow-up assessments at 6 months. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months, 83% of patients had at least one cardiopulmonary symptom versus 33% of controls. Patients and controls had comparable biventricular volumes and function. Native cardiac T1 (marker of fibroinflammation) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, marker of focal fibrosis) were increased in patients at 2-3 months. Sixty percent of patients had lung parenchymal abnormalities on CMR and 55% had reduced peak oxygen consumption (pV̇O2) on CPET. By 6 months, 52% of patients remained symptomatic. On CMR, indexed right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (-4·3 mls/m2, P=0·005) decreased and RV ejection fraction (+3·2%, P=0·0003) increased. Native T1 and LGE improved and was comparable to controls. Lung parenchymal abnormalities and peak V̇O2, although better, were abnormal in patients versus controls. 31% had reduced pV̇O2 secondary to symptomatic limitation and muscular impairment. Cardiopulmonary symptoms in patients did not associate with CMR, lung function, or CPET measures. INTERPRETATION: In patients, cardiopulmonary abnormalities improve over time, though some measures remain abnormal relative to controls. Persistent symptoms at 6 months post-COVID-19 did not associate with objective measures of cardiopulmonary health. FUNDING: The authors' work was supported by the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford British Heart Foundation (BHF) Centre of Research Excellence (RE/18/3/34214), United Kingdom Research Innovation and Wellcome Trust. This project is part of a tier 3 study (C-MORE) within the collaborative research programme entitled PHOSP-COVID Post-hospitalization COVID-19 study: a national consortium to understand and improve long-term health outcomes, funded by the Medical Research Council and Department of Health and Social Care/National Institute for Health Research Grant (MR/V027859/1) ISRCTN number 10980107.

11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438096

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 100 million cases worldwide. The UK has had over 4 million cases, 400 000 hospital admissions and 100 000 deaths. Many patients with COVID-19 suffer long-term symptoms, predominantly breathlessness and fatigue whether hospitalised or not. Early data suggest potentially severe long-term consequence of COVID-19 is development of long COVID-19-related interstitial lung disease (LC-ILD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The UK Interstitial Lung Disease Consortium (UKILD) will undertake longitudinal observational studies of patients with suspected ILD following COVID-19. The primary objective is to determine ILD prevalence at 12 months following infection and whether clinically severe infection correlates with severity of ILD. Secondary objectives will determine the clinical, genetic, epigenetic and biochemical factors that determine the trajectory of recovery or progression of ILD. Data will be obtained through linkage to the Post-Hospitalisation COVID platform study and community studies. Additional substudies will conduct deep phenotyping. The Xenon MRI investigation of Alveolar dysfunction Substudy will conduct longitudinal xenon alveolar gas transfer and proton perfusion MRI. The POST COVID-19 interstitial lung DiseasE substudy will conduct clinically indicated bronchoalveolar lavage with matched whole blood sampling. Assessments include exploratory single cell RNA and lung microbiomics analysis, gene expression and epigenetic assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All contributing studies have been granted appropriate ethical approvals. Results from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: This study will ensure the extent and consequences of LC-ILD are established and enable strategies to mitigate progression of LC-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Radiology ; 301(1): E353-E360, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430241

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 targets angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-expressing cells in the respiratory tract. There are reports of breathlessness in patients many months after infection. Purpose To determine whether hyperpolarized xenon 129 MRI (XeMRI) imaging could be used to identify the possible cause of breathlessness in patients at 3 months after hospital discharge following COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods This prospective study was undertaken between August and December of 2020, with patients and healthy control volunteers being enrolled. All patients underwent lung function tests; ventilation and dissolved-phase XeMRI, with the mean red blood cell (RBC) to tissue or plasma (TP) ratio being calculated; and a low-dose chest CT, with scans being scored for the degree of abnormalities after COVID-19. Healthy control volunteers underwent XeMRI. The intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for volunteer and patient scans to assess repeatability. A Wilcoxon rank sum test and Cohen effect size calculation were performed to assess differences in the RBC/TP ratio between patients and control volunteers. Results Nine patients (mean age, 57 years ± 7 [standard deviation]; six male patients) and five volunteers (mean age, 29 years ± 3; five female volunteers) were enrolled. The mean time from hospital discharge for patients was 169 days (range, 116-254 days). There was a difference in the RBC/TP ratio between patients and control volunteers (0.3 ± 0.1 vs 0.5 ± 0.1, respectively; P = .001; effect size, 1.36). There was significant difference between the RBC and gas phase spectral full width at half maximum between volunteers and patients (median ± range, 567 ± 1 vs 507 ± 81 [P = .002] and 104 ± 2 vs 122 ± 17 [P = .004], respectively). Results were reproducible, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.88 being demonstrated for patients and volunteers, respectively. Participants had normal or nearly normal CT scans (mean, seven of 25; range, zero of 25 to 10 of 25). Conclusion Hyperpolarized xenon 129 MRI results showed alveolar capillary diffusion limitation in all nine patients after COVID-19 pneumonia, despite normal or nearly normal results at CT. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Dietrich in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Xenon Isotopes , Adult , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
EClinicalMedicine ; 31: 100683, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term effects of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on organ health, exercise capacity, cognition, quality of life and mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: Fifty-eight COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 30 age, sex, body mass index comorbidity-matched controls were enrolled for multiorgan (brain, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spirometry, six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), quality of life, cognitive and mental health assessments. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months from disease-onset, 64% of patients experienced breathlessness and 55% reported fatigue. On MRI, abnormalities were seen in lungs (60%), heart (26%), liver (10%) and kidneys (29%). Patients exhibited changes in the thalamus, posterior thalamic radiations and sagittal stratum on brain MRI and demonstrated impaired cognitive performance, specifically in the executive and visuospatial domains. Exercise tolerance (maximal oxygen consumption and ventilatory efficiency on CPET) and six-minute walk distance were significantly reduced. The extent of extra-pulmonary MRI abnormalities and exercise intolerance correlated with serum markers of inflammation and acute illness severity. Patients had a higher burden of self-reported symptoms of depression and experienced significant impairment in all domains of quality of life compared to controls (p<0.0001 to 0.044). INTERPRETATION: A significant proportion of patients discharged from hospital reported symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, depression and had limited exercise capacity. Persistent lung and extra-pulmonary organ MRI findings are common in patients and linked to inflammation and severity of acute illness. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford and Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centres, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, UKRI, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation.

14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(2): 196-206, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection carries a substantial risk of severe and prolonged illness; treatment options are currently limited. We assessed the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulised interferon beta-1a (SNG001) for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 pilot trial at nine UK sites. Adults aged 18 years or older and admitted to hospital with COVID-19 symptoms, with a positive RT-PCR or point-of-care test, or both, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive SNG001 (6 MIU) or placebo by inhalation via a mouthpiece daily for 14 days. The primary outcome was the change in clinical condition on the WHO Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement (OSCI) during the dosing period in the intention-to-treat population (all randomised patients who received at least one dose of the study drug). The OSCI is a 9-point scale, where 0 corresponds to no infection and 8 corresponds to death. Multiple analyses were done to identify the most suitable statistical method for future clinical trials. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events for 28 days. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrialsregister.eu (2020-001023-14) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04385095); the pilot trial of inpatients with COVID-19 is now completed. FINDINGS: Between March 30 and May 30, 2020, 101 patients were randomly assigned to SNG001 (n=50) or placebo (n=51). 48 received SNG001 and 50 received placebo and were included in the intention-to-treat population. 66 (67%) patients required oxygen supplementation at baseline: 29 in the placebo group and 37 in the SNG001 group. Patients receiving SNG001 had greater odds of improvement on the OSCI scale (odds ratio 2·32 [95% CI 1·07-5·04]; p=0·033) on day 15 or 16 and were more likely than those receiving placebo to recover to an OSCI score of 1 (no limitation of activities) during treatment (hazard ratio 2·19 [95% CI 1·03-4·69]; p=0·043). SNG001 was well tolerated. The most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse event was headache (seven [15%] patients in the SNG001 group and five [10%] in the placebo group). There were three deaths in the placebo group and none in the SNG001 group. INTERPRETATION: Patients who received SNG001 had greater odds of improvement and recovered more rapidly from SARS-CoV-2 infection than patients who received placebo, providing a strong rationale for further trials. FUNDING: Synairgen Research.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon beta-1a/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Interferon beta-1a/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Treatment Outcome
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(12): 1656-1665, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810560

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been established.Objectives: To assess outcomes in patients with ILD hospitalized for COVID-19 versus those without ILD in a contemporaneous age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched population.Methods: An international multicenter audit of patients with a prior diagnosis of ILD admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 1, 2020, was undertaken and compared with patients without ILD, obtained from the ISARIC4C (International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium) cohort, admitted with COVID-19 over the same period. The primary outcome was survival. Secondary analysis distinguished idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from non-idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ILD and used lung function to determine the greatest risks of death.Measurements and Main Results: Data from 349 patients with ILD across Europe were included, of whom 161 were admitted to the hospital with laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19 and eligible for propensity score matching. Overall mortality was 49% (79/161) in patients with ILD with COVID-19. After matching, patients with ILD with COVID-19 had significantly poorer survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; confidence interval, 1.17-2.18; P = 0.003) than age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls without ILD. Patients with an FVC of <80% had an increased risk of death versus patients with FVC ≥80% (HR, 1.72; 1.05-2.83). Furthermore, obese patients with ILD had an elevated risk of death (HR, 2.27; 1.39-3.71).Conclusions: Patients with ILD are at increased risk of death from COVID-19, particularly those with poor lung function and obesity. Stringent precautions should be taken to avoid COVID-19 in patients with ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781081

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathogenesis is associated with an exaggerated immune response. However, the specific cellular mediators and inflammatory components driving diverse clinical disease outcomes remain poorly understood. We undertook longitudinal immune profiling on both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of hospitalized patients during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. Here, we report key immune signatures present shortly after hospital admission that were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Immune signatures were related to shifts in neutrophil to T cell ratio, elevated serum IL-6, MCP-1 and IP-10, and most strikingly, modulation of CD14+ monocyte phenotype and function. Modified features of CD14+ monocytes included poor induction of the prostaglandin-producing enzyme, COX-2, as well as enhanced expression of the cell cycle marker Ki-67. Longitudinal analysis revealed reversion of some immune features back to the healthy median level in patients with a good eventual outcome. These findings identify previously unappreciated alterations in the innate immune compartment of COVID-19 patients and lend support to the idea that therapeutic strategies targeting release of myeloid cells from bone marrow should be considered in this disease. Moreover, they demonstrate that features of an exaggerated immune response are present early after hospital admission suggesting immune-modulating therapies would be most beneficial at early timepoints.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Monocytes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cyclooxygenase 2/immunology , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Ki-67 Antigen/immunology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767949

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 can lead to severe illness with COVID-19. Outcomes of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are poor. Awake proning in COVID-19 improves oxygenation, but on data clinical outcomes is limited. This single-centre retrospective study aimed to assess whether successful awake proning of patients with COVID-19, requiring respiratory support (continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) or high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO)) on a respiratory high-dependency unit (HDU), is associated with improved outcomes. HDU care included awake proning by respiratory physiotherapists. Of 565 patients admitted with COVID-19, 71 (12.6%) were managed on the respiratory HDU, with 48 of these (67.6%) requiring respiratory support. Patients managed with CPAP alone 22/48 (45.8%) were significantly less likely to die than patients who required transfer onto HFNO 26/48 (54.2%): CPAP mortality 36.4%; HFNO mortality 69.2%, (p=0.023); however, multivariate analysis demonstrated that increasing age and the inability to awake prone were the only independent predictors of COVID-19 mortality. The mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support is considerable. Data from our cohort managed on HDU show that CPAP and awake proning are possible in a selected population of COVID-19, and may be useful. Further prospective studies are required.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prone Position , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom , Wakefulness
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 691, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stage 1: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of candidate agents as add-on therapies to standard of care (SoC) in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in a screening stage. Stage 2: To confirm the efficacy of candidate agents selected on the basis of evidence from Stage 1 in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in an expansion stage. TRIAL DESIGN: ACCORD is a seamless, Phase 2, adaptive, randomised controlled platform study, designed to rapidly test candidate agents in the treatment of COVID-19. Designed as a master protocol with each candidate agent being included via its own sub-protocol, initially randomising equally between each candidate and a single contemporaneous SoC arm (which can adapt into 2:1). Candidate agents currently include bemcentinib, MEDI3506, acalabrutinib, zilucoplan and nebulised heparin. For each candidate a total of 60 patients will be recruited in Stage 1. If Stage 1 provides evidence of efficacy and acceptable safety the candidate will enter Stage 2 where a total of approximately 126 patients will be recruited into each study arm sub-protocol. Enrollees and outcomes will not be shared across the Stages; the endpoint, analysis and sample size for Stage 2 may be adjusted based on evidence from Stage 1. Additional arms may be added as new potential candidate agents are identified via candidate agent specific sub-protocols. PARTICIPANTS: The study will include hospitalised adult patients (≥18 years) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus that causes COVID-19, that clinically meet Grades 3 (hospitalised - mild disease, no oxygen therapy), Grades 4 (hospitalised, oxygen by mask or nasal prongs) and 5 (hospitalised, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen) of the WHO Working Group on the Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 9-point category ordinal scale. Participants will be recruited from England, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Comparator is current standard of care (SoC) for the treatment of COVID-19. Current candidate experimental arms include bemcentinib, MEDI3506, acalabrutinib, zilucoplan and nebulised heparin with others to be added over time. Bemcentinib could potentially reduce viral infection and blocks SARS-CoV-2 spike protein; MEDI3506 is a clinic-ready anti-IL-33 monoclonal antibody with the potential to treat respiratory failure caused by COVID; acalabrutinib is a BTK inhibitor which is anti-viral and anti-inflammatory; zilucoplan is a complement C5 inhibitor which may block the severe inflammatory response in COVID-19 and; nebulised heparin has been shown to bind with the spike protein. ACCORD is linked with the UK national COVID therapeutics task force to help prioritise candidate agents. MAIN OUTCOMES: Time to sustained clinical improvement of at least 2 points (from randomisation) on the WHO 9-point category ordinal scale, live discharge from the hospital, or considered fit for discharge (a score of 0, 1, or 2 on the ordinal scale), whichever comes first, by Day 29 (this will also define the "responder" for the response rate analyses). RANDOMISATION: An electronic randomization will be performed by Cenduit using Interactive Response Technology (IRT). Randomisation will be stratified by baseline severity grade. Randomisation will proceed with an equal allocation to each arm and a contemporaneous SoC arm (e.g. 1:1 if control and 1 experimental arm; 1:1:1 if two experimental candidate arms etc) but will be reviewed as the trial progresses and may be changed to 2:1 in favour of the candidate agents. BLINDING (MASKING): The trial is open label and no blinding is currently planned in the study. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): This will be in the order of 60 patients per candidate agent for Stage 1, and 126 patients for Stage 2. However, sample size re-estimation may be considered after Stage 1. It is estimated that up to 1800 patients will participate in the overall study. TRIAL STATUS: Master protocol version ACCORD-2-001 - Master Protocol (Amendment 1) 22nd April 2020, the trial has full regulatory approval and recruitment is ongoing in the bemcentinib (first patient recruited 6/5/2020), MEDI3506 (first patient recruited 19/5/2020), acalabrutinib (first patient recruited 20/5/2020) and zilucoplan (first patient recruited 19/5/2020) candidates (and SoC). The recruitment dates of each arm will vary between candidate agents as they are added or dropped from the trial, but will have recruited and reported within a year. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2020-001736-95 , registered 28th April 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (Master Protocol with each of the candidate sub-protocols) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Benzamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Standard of Care
20.
JCI Insight ; 5(13)2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-541270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying immune correlates of COVID-19 disease severity is an urgent need for clinical management, vaccine evaluation, and drug development. Here, we present a temporal analysis of key immune mediators, cytokines, and chemokines in blood of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from serial sampling and follow-up over 4 weeks. METHODS: A total of 71 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Beijing You'an Hospital in China with either mild (53 patients) or severe (18 patients) disease were enrolled with 18 healthy volunteers. We measured 34 immune mediators, cytokines, and chemokines in peripheral blood every 4-7 days over 1 month per patient using a bioplex multiplex immunoassay. RESULTS: We found that the chemokine RANTES (CCL5) was significantly elevated, from an early stage of the infection, in patients with mild but not severe disease. We also found that early production of inhibitory mediators including IL-10 and IL-1RA were significantly associated with disease severity, and a combination of CCL5, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and IL-10 at week 1 may predict patient outcomes. The majority of cytokines that are known to be associated with the cytokine storm in virus infections such as IL-6 and IFN-γ were only significantly elevated in the late stage of severe COVID-19 illness. TNF-α and GM-CSF showed no significant differences between severe and mild cases. CONCLUSION: Together, our data suggest that early intervention to increase expression of CCL5 may prevent patients from developing severe illness. Our data also suggest that measurement of levels of CCL5, as well as IL-1RA and IL-10 in blood individually and in combination, might be useful prognostic biomarkers to guide treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CCL5/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoassay , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
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