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1.
J Biomed Inform ; 133: 104147, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The growing availability of electronic health records (EHR) data opens opportunities for integrative analysis of multi-institutional EHR to produce generalizable knowledge. A key barrier to such integrative analyses is the lack of semantic interoperability across different institutions due to coding differences. We propose a Multiview Incomplete Knowledge Graph Integration (MIKGI) algorithm to integrate information from multiple sources with partially overlapping EHR concept codes to enable translations between healthcare systems. METHODS: The MIKGI algorithm combines knowledge graph information from (i) embeddings trained from the co-occurrence patterns of medical codes within each EHR system and (ii) semantic embeddings of the textual strings of all medical codes obtained from the Self-Aligning Pretrained BERT (SAPBERT) algorithm. Due to the heterogeneity in the coding across healthcare systems, each EHR source provides partial coverage of the available codes. MIKGI synthesizes the incomplete knowledge graphs derived from these multi-source embeddings by minimizing a spherical loss function that combines the pairwise directional similarities of embeddings computed from all available sources. MIKGI outputs harmonized semantic embedding vectors for all EHR codes, which improves the quality of the embeddings and enables direct assessment of both similarity and relatedness between any pair of codes from multiple healthcare systems. RESULTS: With EHR co-occurrence data from Veteran Affairs (VA) healthcare and Mass General Brigham (MGB), MIKGI algorithm produces high quality embeddings for a variety of downstream tasks including detecting known similar or related entity pairs and mapping VA local codes to the relevant EHR codes used at MGB. Based on the cosine similarity of the MIKGI trained embeddings, the AUC was 0.918 for detecting similar entity pairs and 0.809 for detecting related pairs. For cross-institutional medical code mapping, the top 1 and top 5 accuracy were 91.0% and 97.5% when mapping medication codes at VA to RxNorm medication codes at MGB; 59.1% and 75.8% when mapping VA local laboratory codes to LOINC hierarchy. When trained with 500 labels, the lab code mapping attained top 1 and 5 accuracy at 77.7% and 87.9%. MIKGI also attained best performance in selecting VA local lab codes for desired laboratory tests and COVID-19 related features for COVID EHR studies. Compared to existing methods, MIKGI attained the most robust performance with accuracy the highest or near the highest across all tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed MIKGI algorithm can effectively integrate incomplete summary data from biomedical text and EHR data to generate harmonized embeddings for EHR codes for knowledge graph modeling and cross-institutional translation of EHR codes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Health Records , Algorithms , Humans , Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes , Pattern Recognition, Automated
2.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(10): 1220-1229, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909946

ABSTRACT

Rationale: A common MUC5B gene polymorphism, rs35705950-T, is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but its role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and disease severity is unclear. Objectives: To assess whether rs35705950-T confers differential risk for clinical outcomes associated with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection among participants in the Million Veteran Program (MVP). Methods: The MUC5B rs35705950-T allele was directly genotyped among MVP participants; clinical events and comorbidities were extracted from the electronic health records. Associations between the incidence or severity of COVID-19 and rs35705950-T were analyzed within each ancestry group in the MVP followed by transancestry meta-analysis. Replication and joint meta-analysis were conducted using summary statistics from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (HGI). Sensitivity analyses with adjustment for additional covariates (body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking, asbestosis, rheumatoid arthritis with interstitial lung disease, and IPF) and associations with post-COVID-19 pneumonia were performed in MVP subjects. Measurements and Main Results: The rs35705950-T allele was associated with fewer COVID-19 hospitalizations in transancestry meta-analyses within the MVP (Ncases = 4,325; Ncontrols = 507,640; OR = 0.89 [0.82-0.97]; P = 6.86 × 10-3) and joint meta-analyses with the HGI (Ncases = 13,320; Ncontrols = 1,508,841; OR, 0.90 [0.86-0.95]; P = 8.99 × 10-5). The rs35705950-T allele was not associated with reduced COVID-19 positivity in transancestry meta-analysis within the MVP (Ncases = 19,168/Ncontrols = 492,854; OR, 0.98 [0.95-1.01]; P = 0.06) but was nominally significant (P < 0.05) in the joint meta-analysis with the HGI (Ncases = 44,820; Ncontrols = 1,775,827; OR, 0.97 [0.95-1.00]; P = 0.03). Associations were not observed with severe outcomes or mortality. Among individuals of European ancestry in the MVP, rs35705950-T was associated with fewer post-COVID-19 pneumonia events (OR, 0.82 [0.72-0.93]; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The MUC5B variant rs35705950-T may confer protection in COVID-19 hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Genotype , Hospitalization , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
3.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 81, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908301

ABSTRACT

The risk profiles of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) have not been well characterized in multi-national settings with appropriate controls. We leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data from 277 international hospitals representing 414,602 patients with COVID-19, 2.3 million control patients without COVID-19 in the inpatient and outpatient settings, and over 221 million diagnosis codes to systematically identify new-onset conditions enriched among patients with COVID-19 during the post-acute period. Compared to inpatient controls, inpatient COVID-19 cases were at significant risk for angina pectoris (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.09-1.55), heart failure (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.35), cognitive dysfunctions (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.31), and fatigue (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30). Relative to outpatient controls, outpatient COVID-19 cases were at risk for pulmonary embolism (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.58-2.76), venous embolism (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17-1.54), atrial fibrillation (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.50), type 2 diabetes (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16-1.36) and vitamin D deficiency (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.30). Outpatient COVID-19 cases were also at risk for loss of smell and taste (RR 2.42, 95% CI 1.90-3.06), inflammatory neuropathy (RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.21-2.27), and cognitive dysfunction (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). The incidence of post-acute cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions decreased across time among inpatient cases while the incidence of cardiovascular, digestive, and metabolic conditions increased among outpatient cases. Our study, based on a federated international network, systematically identified robust conditions associated with PASC compared to control groups, underscoring the multifaceted cardiovascular and neurological phenotype profiles of PASC.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(8): 796-804, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905752

ABSTRACT

Importance: Sickle cell trait (SCT), defined as the presence of 1 hemoglobin beta sickle allele (rs334-T) and 1 normal beta allele, is prevalent in millions of people in the US, particularly in individuals of African and Hispanic ancestry. However, the association of SCT with COVID-19 is unclear. Objective: To assess the association of SCT with the prepandemic health conditions in participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and to assess the severity and sequelae of COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: COVID-19 clinical data include 2729 persons with SCT, of whom 353 had COVID-19, and 129 848 SCT-negative individuals, of whom 13 488 had COVID-19. Associations between SCT and COVID-19 outcomes were examined using firth regression. Analyses were performed by ancestry and adjusted for sex, age, age squared, and ancestral principal components to account for population stratification. Data for the study were collected between March 2020 and February 2021. Exposures: The hemoglobin beta S (HbS) allele (rs334-T). Main Outcomes and Measures: This study evaluated 4 COVID-19 outcomes derived from the World Health Organization severity scale and phenotypes derived from International Classification of Diseases codes in the electronic health records. Results: Of the 132 577 MVP participants with COVID-19 data, mean (SD) age at the index date was 64.8 (13.1) years. Sickle cell trait was present in 7.8% of individuals of African ancestry and associated with a history of chronic kidney disease, diabetic kidney disease, hypertensive kidney disease, pulmonary embolism, and cerebrovascular disease. Among the 4 clinical outcomes of COVID-19, SCT was associated with an increased COVID-19 mortality in individuals of African ancestry (n = 3749; odds ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.77; P = .01). In the 60 days following COVID-19, SCT was associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney failure. A counterfactual mediation framework estimated that on average, 20.7% (95% CI, -3.8% to 56.0%) of the total effect of SCT on COVID-19 fatalities was due to acute kidney failure. Conclusions and Relevance: In this genetic association study, SCT was associated with preexisting kidney comorbidities, increased COVID-19 mortality, and kidney morbidity.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Sickle Cell Trait , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , African Americans/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemoglobins , Humans , Kidney , Sickle Cell Trait/complications , Sickle Cell Trait/epidemiology , Sickle Cell Trait/genetics
5.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 74, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890276

ABSTRACT

Given the growing number of prediction algorithms developed to predict COVID-19 mortality, we evaluated the transportability of a mortality prediction algorithm using a multi-national network of healthcare systems. We predicted COVID-19 mortality using baseline commonly measured laboratory values and standard demographic and clinical covariates across healthcare systems, countries, and continents. Specifically, we trained a Cox regression model with nine measured laboratory test values, standard demographics at admission, and comorbidity burden pre-admission. These models were compared at site, country, and continent level. Of the 39,969 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (68.6% male), 5717 (14.3%) died. In the Cox model, age, albumin, AST, creatine, CRP, and white blood cell count are most predictive of mortality. The baseline covariates are more predictive of mortality during the early days of COVID-19 hospitalization. Models trained at healthcare systems with larger cohort size largely retain good transportability performance when porting to different sites. The combination of routine laboratory test values at admission along with basic demographic features can predict mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Importantly, this potentially deployable model differs from prior work by demonstrating not only consistent performance but also reliable transportability across healthcare systems in the US and Europe, highlighting the generalizability of this model and the overall approach.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886451

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective cohort study of 94,595 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases, we developed and validated an algorithm to assess the association between COVID-19 severity and long-term complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis, heart failure, and mortality). COVID-19 severity was associated with a greater risk of experiencing a long-term complication days 31-120 post-infection. Most incident events occurred days 31-60 post-infection and diminished after day 91, except heart failure for severe patients and death for moderate patients, which peaked days 91-120. Understanding the differential impact of COVID-19 severity on long-term events provide insight into possible intervention modalities and critical prevention strategies.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 18(4): e1010113, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817364

ABSTRACT

The study aims to determine the shared genetic architecture between COVID-19 severity with existing medical conditions using electronic health record (EHR) data. We conducted a Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS) of genetic variants associated with critical illness (n = 35) or hospitalization (n = 42) due to severe COVID-19 using genome-wide association summary data from the Host Genetics Initiative. PheWAS analysis was performed using genotype-phenotype data from the Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Program (MVP). Phenotypes were defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes mapped to clinically relevant groups using published PheWAS methods. Among 658,582 Veterans, variants associated with severe COVID-19 were tested for association across 1,559 phenotypes. Variants at the ABO locus (rs495828, rs505922) associated with the largest number of phenotypes (nrs495828 = 53 and nrs505922 = 59); strongest association with venous embolism, odds ratio (ORrs495828 1.33 (p = 1.32 x 10-199), and thrombosis ORrs505922 1.33, p = 2.2 x10-265. Among 67 respiratory conditions tested, 11 had significant associations including MUC5B locus (rs35705950) with increased risk of idiopathic fibrosing alveolitis OR 2.83, p = 4.12 × 10-191; CRHR1 (rs61667602) associated with reduced risk of pulmonary fibrosis, OR 0.84, p = 2.26× 10-12. The TYK2 locus (rs11085727) associated with reduced risk for autoimmune conditions, e.g., psoriasis OR 0.88, p = 6.48 x10-23, lupus OR 0.84, p = 3.97 x 10-06. PheWAS stratified by ancestry demonstrated differences in genotype-phenotype associations. LMNA (rs581342) associated with neutropenia OR 1.29 p = 4.1 x 10-13 among Veterans of African and Hispanic ancestry but not European. Overall, we observed a shared genetic architecture between COVID-19 severity and conditions related to underlying risk factors for severe and poor COVID-19 outcomes. Differing associations between genotype-phenotype across ancestries may inform heterogenous outcomes observed with COVID-19. Divergent associations between risk for severe COVID-19 with autoimmune inflammatory conditions both respiratory and non-respiratory highlights the shared pathways and fine balance of immune host response and autoimmunity and caution required when considering treatment targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(9): 2542-2551, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and influenza are important sources of morbidity and mortality among older adults. Understanding how outcomes differ for older adults hospitalized with either infection is important for improving care. We compared outcomes from infection with COVID-19 and influenza among hospitalized older adults. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 30-day mortality among veterans aged 65+ hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020-December 31, 2020 or with influenza A/B from September 1, 2017 to August 31, 2019 in Veterans Affairs Health Care System (VAHCS). COVID-19 infection was determined by a positive PCR test and influenza by tests used in the VA system. Frailty was defined by the claims-based Veterans Affairs Frailty Index (VA-FI). Logistic regressions of mortality on frailty, age, and infection were adjusted for multiple confounders. RESULTS: A total of 15,474 veterans were admitted with COVID-19 and 7867 with influenza. Mean (SD) ages were 76.1 (7.8) and 75.8 (8.3) years, 97.7% and 97.4% were male, and 66.9% and 76.4% were white in the COVID-19 and influenza cohorts respectively. Crude 30-day mortality (95% CI) was 18.9% (18.3%-19.5%) for COVID-19 and 4.3% (3.8%-4.7%) for influenza. Combining cohorts, the odds ratio for 30-day mortality from COVID-19 (versus influenza) was 6.61 (5.74-7.65). There was a statistically significant interaction between infection with COVID-19 and frailty, but there was no significant interaction between COVID-19 and age. Separating cohorts, greater 30-day mortality was significantly associated with older age (p: COVID-19: <0.001, Influenza: <0.001) and for frail compared with robust individuals (p for trend: COVID-19: <0.001, Influenza: <0.001). CONCLUSION: Mortality from COVID-19 exceeded that from influenza among hospitalized older adults. However, odds of mortality were higher at every level of frailty among those admitted with influenza compared to COVID-19. Prevention will remain key to reducing mortality from viral illnesses among older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Influenza, Human , Veterans , Aged , Female , Frail Elderly , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
Front Genet ; 12: 777076, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760233

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused symptomatic COVID-19 and widespread death across the globe. We sought to determine genetic variants contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization in a large biobank linked to a national United States health system. We identified 19,168 (3.7%) lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases among Million Veteran Program participants between March 1, 2020, and February 2, 2021, including 11,778 Whites, 4,893 Blacks, and 2,497 Hispanics. A multi-population genome-wide association study (GWAS) for COVID-19 outcomes identified four independent genetic variants (rs8176719, rs73062389, rs60870724, and rs73910904) contributing to COVID-19 positivity, including one novel locus found exclusively among Hispanics. We replicated eight of nine previously reported genetic associations at an alpha of 0.05 in at least one population-specific or the multi-population meta-analysis for one of the four MVP COVID-19 outcomes. We used rs8176719 and three additional variants to accurately infer ABO blood types. We found that A, AB, and B blood types were associated with testing positive for COVID-19 compared with O blood type with the highest risk for the A blood group. We did not observe any genome-wide significant associations for COVID-19 severity outcomes among those testing positive. Our study replicates prior GWAS findings associated with testing positive for COVID-19 among mostly White samples and extends findings at three loci to Black and Hispanic individuals. We also report a new locus among Hispanics requiring further investigation. These findings may aid in the identification of novel therapeutic agents to decrease the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 across all major ancestral populations.

11.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-330616

ABSTRACT

Background: To determine whether neurological diagnoses during COVID-19 hospitalization are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Methods: We investigated the clinical outcomes (length of hospital stay, COVID-19 disease severity based on published criteria, and mortality) of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized from 21 healthcare systems across 6 countries. Leveraging a unique federated multinational network in which electronic health records data are curated by local clinicians and informatics experts, we categorized patients according to the presence of central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) diagnoses during COVID-19 hospitalization. We further identified comorbidities preceding hospitalization for COVID-19 up to 12 months. Each healthcare system locally performed covariate-adjusted survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the association between neurologic status and time to discharge, severe COVID-19 disease, and death. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis on locally generated results to estimate the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with concurrent neurological diagnoses during COVID-19 hospitalization versus those with no neurological condition (NNC). Findings: We analyzed 87,869 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from January 2020 until September 2021, 13,518 (15%) with at least one CNS diagnosis, and 2,461 (3%) with at least one PNS diagnosis. The CNS group had longer hospital stay (median of 12 days), greater risk of severe disease, and higher risk of mortality than the NNC group. The PNS group also had longer hospital stay, but a similar risk of severe disease and lower risk of mortality than the NNC group. Patients with CNS diagnoses had a greater burden of pre-existing comorbidities, including neurologic conditions, when compared to the NNC group. Interpretation: Patients with CNS diagnoses during COVID-19 hospitalization harbored a greater burden of pre-existing comorbidities and had greater risk for adverse clinical outcomes.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327416

ABSTRACT

Objective For multi-center heterogeneous Real-World Data (RWD) with time-to-event outcomes and high-dimensional features, we propose the SurvMaximin algorithm to estimate Cox model feature coefficients for a target population by borrowing summary information from a set of health care centers without sharing patient-level information. Materials and Methods For each of the centers from which we want to borrow information to improve the prediction performance for the target population, a penalized Cox model is fitted to estimate feature coefficients for the center. Using estimated feature coefficients and the covariance matrix of the target population, we then obtain a SurvMaximin estimated set of feature coefficients for the target population. The target population can be an entire cohort comprised of all centers, corresponding to federated learning, or can be a single center, corresponding to transfer learning. Results Simulation studies and a real-world international electronic health records application study, with 15 participating health care centers across three countries (France, Germany, and the U.S.), show that the proposed SurvMaximin algorithm achieves comparable or higher accuracy compared with the estimator using only the information of the target site and other existing methods. The SurvMaximin estimator is robust to variations in sample sizes and estimated feature coefficients between centers, which amounts to significantly improved estimates for target sites with fewer observations. Conclusions The SurvMaximin method is well suited for both federated and transfer learning in the high-dimensional survival analysis setting. SurvMaximin only requires a one-time summary information exchange from participating centers. Estimated regression vectors can be very heterogeneous. SurvMaximin provides robust Cox feature coefficient estimates without outcome information in the target population and is privacy-preserving.

13.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327268

ABSTRACT

Genetic predisposition to venous thrombosis may impact COVID-19 infection and its sequelae. Participants in the ongoing prospective cohort study, Million Veteran Program (MVP), who were tested for COVID-19, with European ancestry, were evaluated for associations with polygenic venous thromboembolic risk, Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) (rs6025) and prothrombin gene 3'-UTR mutation (F2 G20210A)(rs1799963), and their interactions. Logistic regression models assessed genetic associations with VTE diagnosis, COVID-19 (positive) testing rates and outcome severity (modified WHO criteria), and post-test conditions, adjusting for outpatient anticoagulation medication usage, age, sex, and genetic principal components. 108,437 out of 464,961 European American MVP participants were tested for COVID-19 with 9786 (9%) positive. PRS(VTE), FVL, F2 G20210A were not significantly associated with the propensity of being tested for COVID-19. PRS(VTE) was significantly associated with a positive COVID-19 test in F5 wild type (WT) individuals (OR 1.05;95% CI [1.02-1.07]), but not in FVL carriers (0.97, [0.91-1.94]). There was no association with severe outcome for FVL, F2 G20210A or PRS(VTE). Outpatient anticoagulation usage in the two years prior to testing was associated with worse clinical outcomes. PRS(VTE) was associated with prevalent VTE diagnosis among both FVL carriers or F5 wild type individuals as well as incident VTE in the two years prior to testing. Increased genetic propensity for VTE in the MVP was associated with increased COVID-19 positive testing rates, suggesting a role of coagulation in the initial steps of COVID-19 infection.

14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(4): 386-395, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653126

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confers significant risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with COVID-19 with AKI have high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: Individuals with African ancestry with 2 copies of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) variants G1 or G2 (high-risk group) have significantly increased rates of kidney disease. We tested the hypothesis that the APOL1 high-risk group is associated with a higher-risk of COVID-19-associated AKI and death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study included 990 participants with African ancestry enrolled in the Million Veteran Program who were hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 2020 and January 2021 with available genetic information. EXPOSURES: The primary exposure was having 2 APOL1 risk variants (RV) (APOL1 high-risk group), compared with having 1 or 0 risk variants (APOL1 low-risk group). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was AKI. The secondary outcomes were stages of AKI severity and death. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for preexisting comorbidities, medications, and inpatient AKI risk factors; 10 principal components of ancestry were performed to study these associations. We performed a subgroup analysis in individuals with normal kidney function prior to hospitalization (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2). RESULTS: Of the 990 participants with African ancestry, 905 (91.4%) were male with a median (IQR) age of 68 (60-73) years. Overall, 392 (39.6%) patients developed AKI, 141 (14%) developed stages 2 or 3 AKI, 28 (3%) required dialysis, and 122 (12.3%) died. One hundred twenty-five (12.6%) of the participants were in the APOL1 high-risk group. Patients categorized as APOL1 high-risk group had significantly higher odds of AKI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02; P = .002), higher AKI severity stages (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.37-2.99; P < .001), and death (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.22-3.72; P = .007). The association with AKI persisted in the subgroup with normal kidney function (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.15-3.26; P = .01). Data analysis was conducted between February 2021 and April 2021. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of veterans with African ancestry hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, APOL1 kidney risk variants were associated with higher odds of AKI, AKI severity, and death, even among individuals with prior normal kidney function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Veterans , Acute Kidney Injury/genetics , African Americans/genetics , Aged , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248128, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant global threat. However, despite urgent need, there remains uncertainty surrounding best practices for pharmaceutical interventions to treat COVID-19. In particular, conflicting evidence has emerged surrounding the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, alone or in combination, for COVID-19. The COVID-19 Evidence Accelerator convened by the Reagan-Udall Foundation for the FDA, in collaboration with Friends of Cancer Research, assembled experts from the health systems research, regulatory science, data science, and epidemiology to participate in a large parallel analysis of different data sets to further explore the effectiveness of these treatments. METHODS: Electronic health record (EHR) and claims data were extracted from seven separate databases. Parallel analyses were undertaken on data extracted from each source. Each analysis examined time to mortality in hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and the two in combination as compared to patients not treated with either drug. Cox proportional hazards models were used, and propensity score methods were undertaken to adjust for confounding. Frequencies of adverse events in each treatment group were also examined. RESULTS: Neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin, alone or in combination, were significantly associated with time to mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. No treatment groups appeared to have an elevated risk of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and their combination appeared to have no effect on time to mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Continued research is needed to clarify best practices surrounding treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Data Management/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(11): 2405-2419, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493668

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was proposed as an early therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after in vitro studies indicated possible benefit. Previous in vivo observational studies have presented conflicting results, though recent randomized clinical trials have reported no benefit from HCQ among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We examined the effects of HCQ alone and in combination with azithromycin in a hospitalized population of US veterans with COVID-19, using a propensity score-adjusted survival analysis with imputation of missing data. According to electronic health record data from the US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, 64,055 US Veterans were tested for the virus that causes COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and April 30, 2020. Of the 7,193 veterans who tested positive, 2,809 were hospitalized, and 657 individuals were prescribed HCQ within the first 48-hours of hospitalization for the treatment of COVID-19. There was no apparent benefit associated with HCQ receipt, alone or in combination with azithromycin, and there was an increased risk of intubation when HCQ was used in combination with azithromycin (hazard ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 2.24). In conclusion, we assessed the effectiveness of HCQ with or without azithromycin in treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, using a national sample of the US veteran population. Using rigorous study design and analytic methods to reduce confounding and bias, we found no evidence of a survival benefit from the administration of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intention to Treat Analysis , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Pharmacoepidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e31400, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries have experienced 2 predominant waves of COVID-19-related hospitalizations. Comparing the clinical trajectories of patients hospitalized in separate waves of the pandemic enables further understanding of the evolving epidemiology, pathophysiology, and health care dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed electronic health record (EHR) data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections hospitalized in participating health care systems representing 315 hospitals across 6 countries. We compared hospitalization rates, severe COVID-19 risk, and mean laboratory values between patients hospitalized during the first and second waves of the pandemic. METHODS: Using a federated approach, each participating health care system extracted patient-level clinical data on their first and second wave cohorts and submitted aggregated data to the central site. Data quality control steps were adopted at the central site to correct for implausible values and harmonize units. Statistical analyses were performed by computing individual health care system effect sizes and synthesizing these using random effect meta-analyses to account for heterogeneity. We focused the laboratory analysis on C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, fibrinogen, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and creatinine based on their reported associations with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Data were available for 79,613 patients, of which 32,467 were hospitalized in the first wave and 47,146 in the second wave. The prevalence of male patients and patients aged 50 to 69 years decreased significantly between the first and second waves. Patients hospitalized in the second wave had a 9.9% reduction in the risk of severe COVID-19 compared to patients hospitalized in the first wave (95% CI 8.5%-11.3%). Demographic subgroup analyses indicated that patients aged 26 to 49 years and 50 to 69 years; male and female patients; and black patients had significantly lower risk for severe disease in the second wave than in the first wave. At admission, the mean values of CRP were significantly lower in the second wave than in the first wave. On the seventh hospital day, the mean values of CRP, ferritin, fibrinogen, and procalcitonin were significantly lower in the second wave than in the first wave. In general, countries exhibited variable changes in laboratory testing rates from the first to the second wave. At admission, there was a significantly higher testing rate for D-dimer in France, Germany, and Spain. CONCLUSIONS: Patients hospitalized in the second wave were at significantly lower risk for severe COVID-19. This corresponded to mean laboratory values in the second wave that were more likely to be in typical physiological ranges on the seventh hospital day compared to the first wave. Our federated approach demonstrated the feasibility and power of harmonizing heterogeneous EHR data from multiple international health care systems to rapidly conduct large-scale studies to characterize how COVID-19 clinical trajectories evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 967-975, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early convalescent plasma transfusion may reduce mortality in patients with nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study emulates a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data from a cohort of US veterans admitted to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility between 1 May and 17 November 2020 with nonsevere COVID-19. The intervention was convalescent plasma initiated within 2 days of eligibility. Thirty-day mortality was compared using cumulative incidence curves, risk differences, and hazard ratios estimated from pooled logistic models with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Of 11 269 eligible person-trials contributed by 4755 patients, 402 trials were assigned to the convalescent plasma group. Forty and 671 deaths occurred within the plasma and nonplasma groups, respectively. The estimated 30-day mortality risk was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0%-9.7%) in the plasma group and 6.2% (95% CI, 5.6%-7.0%) in the nonplasma group. The associated risk difference was 0.30% (95% CI, -2.30% to 3.60%) and the hazard ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, .64-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Our target trial emulation estimated no meaningful differences in 30-day mortality between nonsevere COVID-19 patients treated and untreated with convalescent plasma. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT04545047.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Veterans , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk factors associated with the stages of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease progression are not well known. We aim to identify risk factors specific to each state of COVID-19 progression from SARS-CoV-2 infection through death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 648,202 participants from the Veteran Affairs Million Veteran Program (2011-). We identified characteristics and 1,809 ICD code-based phenotypes from the electronic health record. We used logistic regression to examine the association of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race, and prevalent phenotypes to the stages of COVID-19 disease progression: infection, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 30-day mortality (separate models for each). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, number of visit months and ICD codes, state infection rate and controlled for multiple testing using false discovery rate (≤0.1). As of August 10, 2020, 5,929 individuals were SARS-CoV-2 positive and among those, 1,463 (25%) were hospitalized, 579 (10%) were in ICU, and 398 (7%) died. We observed a lower risk in women vs. men for ICU and mortality (Odds Ratio (95% CI): 0.48 (0.30-0.76) and 0.59 (0.31-1.15), respectively) and a higher risk in Black vs. Other race patients for hospitalization and ICU (OR (95%CI): 1.53 (1.32-1.77) and 1.63 (1.32-2.02), respectively). We observed an increased risk of all COVID-19 disease states with older age and BMI ≥35 vs. 20-24 kg/m2. Renal failure, respiratory failure, morbid obesity, acid-base balance disorder, white blood cell diseases, hydronephrosis and bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of ICU admissions; sepsis, chronic skin ulcers, acid-base balance disorder and acidosis were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, higher BMI, males and patients with a history of respiratory, kidney, bacterial or metabolic comorbidities experienced greater COVID-19 severity. Future studies to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with these phenotype clusters and COVID-19 are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Veterans Health , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology , Veterans
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