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1.
Biological psychiatry global open science ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610036

ABSTRACT

Background Prior research suggests that psychiatric disorders could be linked to increased mortality among patients with COVID-19. However, whether all or specific psychiatric disorders are intrinsic risk factors of death in COVID-19, or whether these associations reflect the greater prevalence of medical risk factors in people with psychiatric disorders, has yet to be evaluated. Methods We performed an observational multicenter retrospective cohort study to examine the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality among patients hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at 36 Greater Paris University hospitals. Results Of 15,168 adult patients, 857 (5.7%) had an ICD-10 diagnosis of psychiatric disorder. Over a mean follow-up of 14.6 days (SD=17.9), death occurred in 326/857 (38.0%) patients with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorder versus 1,276/14,311 (8.9%) in patients without such a diagnosis (OR=6.27;95%CI=5.40-7.28;p<0.01). When adjusting for age, sex, hospital, current smoking status, and medications according to compassionate use or as part of a clinical trial, this association remained significant (AOR=3.27;95%CI=2.78-3.85;p<0.01). However, additional adjustments for obesity and number of medical conditions resulted in a non-significant association (AOR=1.02;95%CI=0.84-1.23;p=0.86). Exploratory analyses following the same adjustments suggest that a diagnosis of mood disorders was significantly associated with reduced mortality, which might be explained by the use of antidepressants. Conclusions These findings suggest that the increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality in individuals with psychiatric disorders hospitalized for COVID-19 might be explained by the greater number of medical conditions and the higher prevalence of obesity in this population, but not by the underlying psychiatric disease.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572535

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Based on its antiviral activity, anti-inflammatory properties, and functional inhibition effects on the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system (FIASMA), we sought to examine the potential usefulness of the H1 antihistamine hydroxyzine in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. (2) Methods: In a multicenter observational study, we included 15,103 adults hospitalized for COVID-19, of which 164 (1.1%) received hydroxyzine within the first 48 h of hospitalization, administered orally at a median daily dose of 25.0 mg (SD = 29.5). We compared mortality rates between patients who received hydroxyzine at hospital admission and those who did not, using a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for patients' characteristics, medical conditions, and use of other medications. (3) Results: This analysis showed a significant association between hydroxyzine use and reduced mortality (AOR, 0.51; 95%CI, 0.29-0.88, p = 0.016). This association was similar in multiple sensitivity analyses. (4) Conclusions: In this retrospective observational multicenter study, the use of the FIASMA hydroxyzine was associated with reduced mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials of hydroxyzine for COVID-19 are needed to confirm these results, as are studies to examine the potential usefulness of this medication for outpatients and as post-exposure prophylaxis for individuals at high risk for severe COVID-19.

4.
J Appl Gerontol ; : 7334648211056231, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546702

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine has provided older adults the ability to seek care remotely during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, it is unclear how diverse medical conditions play a role in telemedicine uptake. A total of 3379 participants (≥65 years) were interviewed in 2018 as part of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. We assessed telemedicine readiness across multiple medical conditions. Most chronic medical conditions and mood symptoms were significantly associated with telemedicine unreadiness, for physical or technical reasons or both, while cancer, hypertension, and arthritis were significantly associated with telemedicine readiness. Our findings suggest that multiple medical conditions play a substantial role in telemedicine uptake among older adults in the US. Therefore, comorbidities should be taken into consideration when promoting and adopting telemedicine technologies among older adults.

7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506407

ABSTRACT

Importance: After an infection by SARS-CoV-2, many patients present with persistent physical symptoms that may impair their quality of life. Beliefs regarding the causes of these symptoms may influence their perception and promote maladaptive health behaviors. Objective: To examine the associations of self-reported COVID-19 infection and SARS-CoV-2 serology test results with persistent physical symptoms (eg, fatigue, breathlessness, or impaired attention) in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: Participants in this cross-sectional analysis were 26 823 individuals from the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, included between 2012 and 2019, who took part in the nested SAPRIS and SAPRIS-SERO surveys. Between May and November 2020, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Between December 2020 and January 2021, the participants reported whether they believed they had experienced COVID-19 infection and had physical symptoms during the previous 4 weeks that had persisted for at least 8 weeks. Participants who reported having an initial COVID-19 infection only after completing the serology test were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regressions for each persistent symptom as the outcome were computed in models including both self-reported COVID-19 infection and serology test results and adjusting for age, sex, income, and educational level. Results: Of 35 852 volunteers invited to participate in the study, 26 823 (74.8%) with complete data were included in the present study (mean [SD] age, 49.4 [12.9] years; 13 731 women [51.2%]). Self-reported infection was positively associated with persistent physical symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.86) to 16.37 (95% CI, 10.21-26.24) except for hearing impairment (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.82-2.55) and sleep problems (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.89-1.46). A serology test result positive for SARS-COV-2 was positively associated only with persistent anosmia (odds ratio, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.66-4.46), even when restricting the analyses to participants who attributed their symptoms to COVID-19 infection. Further adjusting for self-rated health or depressive symptoms yielded similar results. There was no significant interaction between belief and serology test results. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional analysis of a large, population-based French cohort suggest that persistent physical symptoms after COVID-19 infection may be associated more with the belief in having been infected with SARS-CoV-2 than with having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. Further research in this area should consider underlying mechanisms that may not be specific to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A medical evaluation of these patients may be needed to prevent symptoms due to another disease being erroneously attributed to "long COVID."

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450276

ABSTRACT

Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) cleaves sphingomyelin into the highly lipophilic ceramide, which forms large gel-like rafts/platforms in the plasma membrane. We showed that SARS-CoV-2 uses these platforms for cell entry. Lowering the amount of ceramide or ceramide blockade due to inhibitors of ASM, genetic downregulation of ASM, anti-ceramide antibodies or degradation by neutral ceramidase protected against infection with SARS-CoV-2. The addition of ceramide restored infection with SARS-CoV-2. Many clinically approved medications functionally inhibit ASM and are called FIASMAs (functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase). The FIASMA fluvoxamine showed beneficial effects on COVID-19 in a randomized prospective study and a prospective open-label real-world study. Retrospective and observational studies showed favorable effects of FIASMA antidepressants including fluoxetine, and the FIASMA hydroxyzine on the course of COVID-19. The ASM/ceramide system provides a framework for a better understanding of the infection of cells by SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects of functional inhibitors of ASM. This framework also supports the development of new drugs or the repurposing of "old" drugs against COVID-19.

9.
Nat Med ; 26(11): 1801, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387440

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

11.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 110(6): 1498-1511, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245382

ABSTRACT

Several medications commonly used for a number of medical conditions share a property of functional inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), or FIASMA. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the ASM/ceramide system may be central to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examined the potential usefulness of FIASMA use among patients hospitalized for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an observational multicenter study conducted at Greater Paris University hospitals. Of 2,846 adult patients hospitalized for severe COVID-19, 277 (9.7%) were taking an FIASMA medication at the time of their hospital admission. The primary end point was a composite of intubation and/or death. We compared this end point between patients taking vs. not taking an FIASMA medication in time-to-event analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and medical comorbidities. The primary analysis was a Cox regression model with inverse probability weighting (IPW). Over a mean follow-up of 9.2 days (SD = 12.5), the primary end point occurred in 104 patients (37.5%) receiving an FIASMA medication, and 1,060 patients (41.4%) who did not. Despite being significantly and substantially associated with older age and greater medical severity, FIASMA medication use was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of intubation or death in both crude (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.87, P < 0.001) and primary IPW (HR = 0.58, 95%CI = 0.46-0.72, P < 0.001) analyses. This association remained significant in multiple sensitivity analyses and was not specific to one particular FIASMA class or medication. These results show the potential importance of the ASM/ceramide system in COVID-19 and support the continuation of FIASMA medications in these patients. Double-blind controlled randomized clinical trials of these medications for COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing/trends , Cohort Studies , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Retrospective Studies , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/metabolism , Young Adult
12.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100701, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198856

ABSTRACT

The acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system has been shown to be important for cellular infection with at least some viruses, for instance, rhinovirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Functional inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase using tricyclic antidepressants prevented infection of epithelial cells, for instance with SARS-CoV-2. The structure of ambroxol, that is, trans-4-[(2,4-dibromanilin-6-yl)-methyamino]-cyclohexanol, a mucolytic drug applied by inhalation, suggests that the drug might inhibit the acid sphingomyelinase and thereby infection with SARS-CoV-2. To test this, we used vesicular stomatitis virus pseudoviral particles presenting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on their surface (pp-VSV-SARS-CoV-2 spike), a bona fide system for mimicking SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Viral uptake and formation of ceramide localization were determined by fluorescence microscopy, activity of the acid sphingomyelinase by consumption of [14C]sphingomyelin and ceramide was quantified by a kinase method. We found that entry of pp-VSV-SARS-CoV-2 spike required activation of acid sphingomyelinase and release of ceramide, events that were all prevented by pretreatment with ambroxol. We also obtained nasal epithelial cells from human volunteers prior to and after inhalation of ambroxol. Inhalation of ambroxol reduced acid sphingomyelinase activity in nasal epithelial cells and prevented pp-VSV-SARS-CoV-2 spike-induced acid sphingomyelinase activation, ceramide release, and entry of pp-VSV-SARS-CoV-2 spike ex vivo. The addition of purified acid sphingomyelinase or C16 ceramide restored entry of pp-VSV-SARS-CoV-2 spike into ambroxol-treated epithelial cells. We propose that ambroxol might be suitable for clinical studies to prevent coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Ambroxol/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/genetics , Vesiculovirus/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Biological Transport , Ceramides/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Repositioning , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/enzymology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Expectorants , Gene Expression , Humans , Primary Cell Culture , Reassortant Viruses/drug effects , Reassortant Viruses/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/antagonists & inhibitors , Sphingomyelin Phosphodiesterase/metabolism , Sphingomyelins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Vesiculovirus/physiology
13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(10): 3766-3775, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127455

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine the association between dexamethasone use and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We examined the association between dexamethasone use and mortality at AP-HP Greater Paris University hospitals. Study baseline was defined as the date of hospital admission. The primary endpoint was time to death. We compared this endpoint between patients who received dexamethasone and those who did not in time-to-event analyses adjusted for patient characteristics (such as age, sex and comorbidity) and clinical and biological markers of clinical severity of COVID-19, and stratified by the need for respiratory support, i.e. mechanical ventilation or oxygen. The primary analysis was a multivariable Cox regression model. RESULTS: Of 12 217 adult patients hospitalized with a positive COVID-19 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test, 171 (1.4%) received dexamethasone orally or by intravenous perfusion during the visit. Among patients who required respiratory support, the end-point occurred in 10/63 (15.9%) patients who received dexamethasone and 298/1129 (26.4%) patients who did not. In this group, there was a significant association between dexamethasone use and reduced mortality in the primary analysis (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.96, P = .039). Among patients who did not require respiratory support, there was no significant association between dexamethasone use and the endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicentre observational study, dexamethasone use administered either orally or by intravenous injection at a cumulative dose between 60 mg and 150 mg was associated with reduced mortality among patients with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haloperidol, a widely used antipsychotic, has been suggested as potentially useful for patients with COVID-19 on the grounds of its in-vitro antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, possibly through sigma-1 receptor antagonist effect. METHODS: We examined the associations of haloperidol use with intubation or death and time to discharge home among adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 at Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) Greater Paris University hospitals. Study baseline was defined as the date of hospital admission. The primary endpoint was a composite of intubation or death and the secondary endpoint was discharge home among survivors in time-to-event analyses. In the primary analyses, we compared these two outcomes between patients receiving and not receiving haloperidol using univariate Cox regression models in matched analytic samples based on patient characteristics and other psychotropic medications. Sensitivity analyses included propensity score analyses with inverse probability weighting and multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Of 15,121 adult inpatients with a positive COVID-19 PT-PCR test, 39 patients (0.03%) received haloperidol within the first 48 hours of admission. Over a mean follow-up of 13.8 days (SD = 17.9), 2,024 patients (13.4%) had a primary end-point event and 10,179 patients (77.6%) were discharged home at the time of study end on May 1st. The primary endpoint occurred in 9 patients (23.1%) who received haloperidol and 2,015 patients (13.4%) who did not. The secondary endpoint of discharge home occurred in 16 patients (61.5%) who received haloperidol and 9,907 patients (85.8%) who did not. There were no significant associations between haloperidol use and the primary (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.62, p = 0.531) and secondary (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.74 to 2.28, p = 0.355) endpoints. Results were similar in multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Findings from this multicenter observational study suggest that haloperidol use prescribed at a mean dose of 4.5 mg per day (SD = 5.2) for a mean duration of 8.4 days (SD = 7.2) may not be associated with risk of intubation or death, or with time to discharge home, among adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Haloperidol/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, sigma/antagonists & inhibitors , Survival Rate
15.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(3): 221-233, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070973

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chlorpromazine has been suggested as being potentially useful in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the grounds of its potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between chlorpromazine use and mortality among adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an observational, multicenter, retrospective study at Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) Greater Paris University hospitals. Study baseline was defined as the date of first prescription of chlorpromazine during hospitalization for COVID-19. The primary endpoint was death. Among patients who had not been hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs), we compared this endpoint between those who received chlorpromazine and those who did not, in time-to-event analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, clinical markers of disease severity, and other psychotropic medications. The primary analysis used a Cox regression model with inverse probability weighting. Multiple sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Of the 14,340 adult inpatients hospitalized outside ICUs for COVID-19, 55 patients (0.4%) received chlorpromazine. Over a mean follow-up of 14.3 days (standard deviation [SD] 18.2), death occurred in 13 patients (23.6%) who received chlorpromazine and 1289 patients (9.0%) who did not. In the primary analysis, there was no significant association between chlorpromazine use and mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75-5.40; p = 0.163). Sensitivity analyses included a Cox regression in a 1:5 ratio matched analytic sample that showed a similar result (HR 1.67, 95% CI 0.91-3.06; p = 0.100) and a multivariable Cox regression that indicated a significant positive association (HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.31-7.34; p = 0.010). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that chlorpromazine prescribed at a mean daily dose of 70.8 mg (SD 65.3) was not associated with reduced mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorpromazine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 5199-5212, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065840

ABSTRACT

A prior meta-analysis showed that antidepressant use in major depressive disorder was associated with reduced plasma levels of several pro-inflammatory mediators, which have been associated with severe COVID-19. Recent studies also suggest that several antidepressants may inhibit acid sphingomyelinase activity, which may prevent the infection of epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2, and that the SSRI fluoxetine may exert in-vitro antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2. We examined the potential usefulness of antidepressant use in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in an observational multicenter retrospective cohort study conducted at AP-HP Greater Paris University hospitals. Of 7230 adults hospitalized for COVID-19, 345 patients (4.8%) received an antidepressant within 48 h of hospital admission. The primary endpoint was a composite of intubation or death. We compared this endpoint between patients who received antidepressants and those who did not in time-to-event analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, clinical and biological markers of disease severity, and other psychotropic medications. The primary analysis was a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting. This analysis showed a significant association between antidepressant use and reduced risk of intubation or death (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43-0.73, p < 0.001). This association remained significant in multiple sensitivity analyses. Exploratory analyses suggest that this association was also significant for SSRI and non-SSRI antidepressants, and for fluoxetine, paroxetine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine (all p < 0.05). These results suggest that antidepressant use could be associated with lower risk of death or intubation in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Double-blind controlled randomized clinical trials of antidepressant medications for COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-818

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus that emerged in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 quickly spread to more than 200 countries around the word. Most countries have

19.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1417-1421, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646479

ABSTRACT

Many European countries have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic by implementing nationwide protection measures and lockdowns1. However, the epidemic could rebound when such measures are relaxed, possibly leading to a requirement for a second or more, repeated lockdowns2. Here, we present results of a stochastic agent-based microsimulation model of the COVID-19 epidemic in France. We examined the potential impact of post-lockdown measures, including physical distancing, mask-wearing and shielding individuals who are the most vulnerable to severe COVID-19 infection, on cumulative disease incidence and mortality, and on intensive care unit (ICU)-bed occupancy. While lockdown is effective in containing the viral spread, once lifted, regardless of duration, it would be unlikely to prevent a rebound. Both physical distancing and mask-wearing, although effective in slowing the epidemic and in reducing mortality, would also be ineffective in ultimately preventing ICUs from becoming overwhelmed and a subsequent second lockdown. However, these measures coupled with the shielding of vulnerable people would be associated with better outcomes, including lower mortality and maintaining an adequate ICU capacity to prevent a second lockdown. Benefits would nonetheless be markedly reduced if most people do not adhere to these measures, or if they are not maintained for a sufficiently long period.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Systems Analysis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Stochastic Processes
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