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1.
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine ; 17(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755701

ABSTRACT

Background To assess the prevalence of Herpes simplex and Cytomegalovirus infection in respiratory samples of critically-ill COVID-19 patients, its role in outcome and mortality and the influence of dexamethasone treatment in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods All mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients treated on ICU between March 2020 and January 2021 were included. Respiratory specimens were tested for Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, 2 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) by quantitative real-time PCR. Clinical parameters were compared in the cohorts with and without HSV-1- infection. Results 134 patients with a median age of 72.5 years (73.0% male, n=98) were included. HSV-1 reactivation occurred in 61 patients (45.5%), after median 9 (7-13) days of mechanical ventilation. The main factor for reactivation was length of stay on ICU (24 days vs 13 days, p<0.001) and duration of mechanical ventilation (417 vs 214 hours, p<0.001). Treatment with dexamethasone and a history of immunosuppression did not associate with HSV-infection in the univariate analysis (39 vs 41, p=0.462 and 27.9% vs 23.3%, p=0.561, respectively). Both ICU and hospital mortality were not significantly different in the cohorts with and without HSV-infection (57.4% vs 45.2%, p=0.219). Conclusions Our study shows a high prevalence of HSV-infection in critically-ill COVID-19 patients which was unexpectedly higher than the prevalence of CMV-infections and unrelated to dexamethasone treatment. The main risk factors for HSV and CMV in the studied cohorts were the length of ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. Therefore, we recommend routine monitoring of critically ill COVID-19 patients for these viral co-infections and consider treatment in those patients.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 572-581, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706937

ABSTRACT

Hospital staff are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospital staff at the University Hospital rechts der Isar in Munich, Germany, and identify modulating factors. Overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-IgG in 4,554 participants was 2.4%. Staff engaged in direct patient care, including those working in COVID-19 units, had a similar probability of being seropositive as non-patient-facing staff. Increased probability of infection was observed in staff reporting interactions with SARS-CoV-2‒infected coworkers or private contacts or exposure to COVID-19 patients without appropriate personal protective equipment. Analysis of spatiotemporal trajectories identified that distinct hotspots for SARS-CoV-2‒positive staff and patients only partially overlap. Patient-facing work in a healthcare facility during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic might be safe as long as adequate personal protective equipment is used and infection prevention practices are followed inside and outside the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infection Control , Personnel, Hospital , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322922

ABSTRACT

Background: Symptoms of primary HIV infection, including fever, rash, and headache, are nonspecific and are often described as flu-like. COVID-19 vaccination side effects, such as fever, which occur in up to 10% of people following COVID-19 vaccination, can make the diagnosis of acute HIV infection even more challenging.Case PresentationA 26-year-old man presented with fever and headache following COVID-19 vaccination. The symptoms were initially thought to be vaccine side effects. A diagnostic workup was conducted due to persisting fever and headache > 72 hours following vaccination, and he was diagnosed with Fiebig stage II acute HIV infection, 3 weeks after having unprotected anal intercourse with another man.ConclusionThorough anamnesis is key to estimating the individual risk of primary HIV infection, in patients presenting with flu-like symptoms. Early diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with better prognosis and limits transmission of the disease.

4.
Nat Med ; 28(3): 496-503, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655606

ABSTRACT

Infection-neutralizing antibody responses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination are an essential component of antiviral immunity. Antibody-mediated protection is challenged by the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) with immune escape properties, such as omicron (B.1.1.529), which is rapidly spreading worldwide. Here we report neutralizing antibody dynamics in a longitudinal cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent and infection-naive individuals vaccinated with mRNA BNT162b2 by quantifying SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies and determining their avidity and neutralization capacity in serum. Using live-virus neutralization assays, we show that a superior infection-neutralizing capacity against all VoCs, including omicron, developed after either two vaccinations in convalescents or a third vaccination or breakthrough infection of twice-vaccinated, naive individuals. These three consecutive spike antigen exposures resulted in an increasing neutralization capacity per anti-spike antibody unit and were paralleled by stepwise increases in antibody avidity. We conclude that an infection-plus-vaccination-induced hybrid immunity or a triple immunization can induce high-quality antibodies with superior neutralization capacity against VoCs, including omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
5.
J Voice ; 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536942

ABSTRACT

Due to the drastically rising coronavirus disease (COVID-19) incidence since March 2020, social life was shut down across the globe, and most opera houses were closed. As a result, there are limited data on SARS-CoV-2 infections among artists. The Bavarian State Opera has been reopened in September 2020. This study aimed to identify the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among employees in the Bavarian State Opera. In addition, the various hygiene strategies for the work groups within the institution are described. During the study period from September 1, 2020 to July 31, 2021, 10,061 nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1,460 artistic staff members in a rolling system. During the entire study period, 61 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. None of the patients had a severe disease course. Compared to the seven-day-incidence per 100,000 German inhabitants, the estimated corresponding incidence among employees was lower at 37 weeks and higher or equal at 9 weeks. Among the infected individuals, 58.3% were symptomatic, 23.3% were presymptomatic, and 18.3% were asymptomatic. Forty-five percent of employees reported that they had been infected in their private environment, 41.7% suspected that their colleagues were the main contact, and 13.3% were unsure about the origin of their infection. Twenty-four diseased employees were ballet dancers, eight from the orchestra, seven from the administration, seven from the choir singers, six from the costume department, 10 from technical support, and one guest solo singer. In the 2020/2021 theater season, increased SARS-CoV-2 infections and large disease outbreaks were avoided at the Bavarian State Opera. Hygiene strategies, that existed since the beginning, was specifically designed for various work areas in the opera. Regular, mandatory PCR testing and follow-up of positive cases with the issuance of quarantine were performed. Using this disease management approach, artistic work at and reopening of the Bavarian State Opera was feasible with a well-controlled risk.

6.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(1): e32564, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large-scale, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based SARS-CoV-2 testing is expensive, resource intensive, and time consuming. A self-collection approach is a probable alternative; however, its feasibility, cost, and ability to prevent infections need to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare an innovative self-collection approach with a regular SARS-CoV-2 testing strategy in a large European industrial manufacturing site. METHODS: The feasibility of a telemedicine-guided PCR-based self-collection approach was assessed for 150 employees (intervention group) and compared with a regular SARS-CoV-2 testing approach used for 143 employees (control group). Acceptance, ergonomics, and efficacy were evaluated using a software application. A simulation model was implemented to evaluate the effectiveness. An interactive R shiny app was created to enable customized simulations. RESULTS: The test results were successfully communicated to and interpreted without uncertainty by 76% (114/150) and 76.9% (110/143) of the participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P=.96). The ratings for acceptability, ergonomics, and efficacy among intervention group participants were noninferior when compared to those among control group participants (acceptability: 71.6% vs 37.6%; ergonomics: 88.1% vs 74.5%; efficacy: 86.4% vs 77.5%). The self-collection approach was found to be less time consuming (23 min vs 38 min; P<.001). The simulation model indicated that both testing approaches reduce the risk of infection, and the self-collection approach tends to be slightly less effective owing to its lower sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: The self-collection approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was found to be technically feasible and well rated in terms of acceptance, ergonomics, and efficacy. The simulation model facilitates the evaluation of test effectiveness; nonetheless, considering context specificity, appropriate adaptation by companies is required.

7.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 78, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of primary HIV infection, including fever, rash, and headache, are nonspecific and are often described as flu-like. COVID-19 vaccination side effects, such as fever, which occur in up to 10% of people following COVID-19 vaccination, can make the diagnosis of acute HIV infection even more challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man presented with fever and headache following COVID-19 vaccination. The symptoms were initially thought to be vaccine side effects. A diagnostic workup was conducted due to persisting fever and headache > 72 h following vaccination, and he was diagnosed with Fiebig stage II acute HIV infection, 3 weeks after having unprotected anal intercourse with another man. CONCLUSION: Thorough anamnesis is key to estimating the individual risk of primary HIV infection, in patients presenting with flu-like symptoms. Early diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with better prognosis and limits transmission of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Infection ; 49(5): 927-934, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic reliability and practicability of self-collected oropharyngeal swab samples for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection as self-sampling could enable broader testing availability and reduce both personal protective equipment and potential exposure. METHODS: Hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were asked to collect two oropharyngeal swabs (SC-OPS1/2), and an additional oropharyngeal swab was collected by a health care professional (HCP-OPS). SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing for samples from 58 participants was performed, with a 48-h delay in half of the self-collected samples (SC-OPS2). The sensitivity, probability of concordance, and interrater reliability were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess predictive factors. Practicability was evaluated through a questionnaire. RESULTS: The test sensitivity for HCP-OPS, SC-OPS1, and SC-OPS2 was 88%, 78%, and 77%, respectively. Combining both SC-OPS results increased the estimated sensitivity to 88%. The concordance probability between HCP-OPS and SC-OPS1 was 77.6% and 82.5% between SC-OPS1 and SC-OPS2, respectively. Of the participants, 69% affirmed performing future self-sampling at home, and 34% preferred self-sampling over HCP-guided testing. Participants with both positive HCP-OPS1 and SC-OPS1 indicating no challenges during self-sampling had more differences in viral load levels between HCP-OPS1 and SC-OPS1 than those who indicated challenges. Increasing disease duration and the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG correlated with negative test results in self-collected samples of previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals. CONCLUSION: Oropharyngeal self-sampling is an applicable testing approach for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. Self-sampling tends to be more effective in early versus late infection and symptom onset, and the collection of two distinct samples is recommended to maintain high test sensitivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
9.
Infection ; 49(6): 1313-1318, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303394

ABSTRACT

Additional treatment options for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed, particularly for populations at high risk of severe disease. This cross-sectional, retrospective study characterized the outcomes of 43 patients with nosocomial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with and without treatment using monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (bamlanivimab or casirivimab/imdevimab). Our results indicate that treatment with monoclonal antibodies results in a significant decrease in disease progression and mortality when used for asymptomatic patients with early SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0238825, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Superinfections, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), are well-known complications of critically ill patients with severe viral pneumonia. Aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors and outcome of IPA in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively screened 32 critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia for a time period of 28 days using a standardized study protocol for oberservation of developement of COVID-19 associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We collected laboratory, microbiological, virological and clinical parameters at defined timepoints in combination with galactomannan-antigen-detection from nondirected bronchial lavage (NBL). We used logistic regression analyses to assess if COVID-19 was independently associated with IPA and compared it with matched controls. FINDINGS: CAPA was diagnosed at a median of 4 days after ICU admission in 11/32 (34%) of critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia as compared to 8% in the control cohort. In the COVID-19 cohort, mean age, APACHE II score and ICU mortality were higher in patients with CAPA than in patients without CAPA (36% versus 9.5%; p<0.001). ICU stay (21 versus 17 days; p = 0.340) and days of mechanical ventilation (20 versus 15 days; p = 0.570) were not different between both groups. In regression analysis COVID-19 and APACHE II score were independently associated with IPA. INTERPRETATION: CAPA is highly prevalent and associated with a high mortality rate. COVID-19 is independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A standardized screening and diagnostic approach as presented in our study can help to identify affected patients at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/microbiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/virology , Male , Mannans/metabolism , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Superinfection/etiology , Superinfection/microbiology
12.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 362-365, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684002

ABSTRACT

In a family experiencing coronavirus disease 2019, the parents and 2 children aged 2 and 5 years became infected but the youngest child was not infected. Both children initially shed infectious virus, but cleared the virus after 5 to 6 days in the nasopharynx. However, viral RNA was continuously detected in the children's stool for more than 4 weeks.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
13.
Euro Surveill ; 25(24)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605372

ABSTRACT

Containment strategies and clinical management of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients during the current pandemic depend on reliable diagnostic PCR assays for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we compare 11 different RT-PCR test systems used in seven diagnostic laboratories in Germany in March 2020. While most assays performed well, we identified detection problems in a commonly used assay that may have resulted in false-negative test results during the first weeks of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Feces/virology , Germany , Humans , Laboratories , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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