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1.
Cell Rep ; 39(5): 110754, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859378

ABSTRACT

Rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants C.1.2 and B.1.621 (Mu variant) in Africa and the Americas, respectively, as well as a high number of mutations in the viral spike proteins raised concerns that these variants might pose an elevated threat to human health. Here, we show that C.1.2 and B.1.621 spike proteins mediate increased entry into certain cell lines but do not exhibit increased ACE2 binding. Further, we demonstrate that C.1.2 and B.1.621 are resistant to neutralization by bamlanivimab but remain sensitive to inhibition by antibody cocktails used for COVID-19 therapy. Finally, we show that C.1.2 and B.1.621 partially escape neutralization by antibodies induced upon infection and vaccination, with escape of vaccine-induced antibodies being as potent as that measured for B.1.351 (Beta variant), which is known to be highly neutralization resistant. Collectively, C.1.2 and B.1.621 partially evade control by vaccine-induced antibodies, suggesting that close monitoring of these variants is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855002

ABSTRACT

Several SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged that harbor mutations in the surface unit of the viral spike (S) protein that enhance infectivity and transmissibility. Here, we analyzed whether ten naturally-occurring mutations found within the extended loop harboring the S1/S2 cleavage site of the S protein, a determinant of SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism and pathogenicity, impact S protein processing and function. None of the mutations increased but several decreased S protein cleavage at the S1/S2 site, including S686G and P681H, the latter of which is found in variants of concern B.1.1.7 (Alpha variant) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron variant). None of the mutations reduced ACE2 binding and cell-cell fusion although several modulated the efficiency of host cell entry. The effects of mutation S686G on viral entry were cell-type dependent and could be linked to the availability of cathepsin L for S protein activation. These results show that polymorphisms at the S1/S2 site can modulate S protein processing and host cell entry.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells/virology , Humans , Immunoblotting , Vero Cells/virology
4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821185

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 evades antibody-mediated neutralization with unprecedented efficiency. At least three Omicron sublineages have been identified-BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3-and BA.2 exhibits increased transmissibility. However, it is currently unknown whether BA.2 differs from the other sublineages regarding cell entry and antibody-mediated inhibition. Here, we show that BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 enter and fuse target cells with similar efficiency and in an ACE2-dependent manner. However, BA.2 was not efficiently neutralized by seven of eight antibodies used for COVID-19 therapy, including Sotrovimab, which robustly neutralized BA.1. In contrast, BA.2 and BA.3 (but not BA.1) were appreciably neutralized by Cilgavimab, which could constitute a treatment option. Finally, all sublineages were comparably and efficiently neutralized by antibodies induced by BNT162b2 booster vaccination after previous two-dose homologous or heterologous vaccination. Collectively, the Omicron sublineages show comparable cell entry and neutralization by vaccine-induced antibodies but differ in susceptibility to therapeutic antibodies.

5.
mBio ; : e0036422, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807325

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) acquired mutations in the spike (S) protein, including E484K, that confer resistance to neutralizing antibodies. However, it is incompletely understood how these mutations impact viral entry into host cells. Here, we analyzed how mutations at position 484 that have been detected in COVID-19 patients impact cell entry and antibody-mediated neutralization. We report that mutation E484D markedly increased SARS-CoV-2 S-driven entry into the hepatoma cell line Huh-7 and the lung cell NCI-H1299 without augmenting ACE2 binding. Notably, mutation E484D largely rescued Huh-7 but not Vero cell entry from blockade by the neutralizing antibody Imdevimab and rendered Huh-7 cell entry ACE2-independent. These results suggest that the naturally occurring mutation E484D allows SARS-CoV-2 to employ an ACE2-independent mechanism for entry that is largely insensitive against Imdevimab, an antibody employed for COVID-19 therapy. IMPORTANCE The interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) with the cellular receptor ACE2 is considered essential for infection and constitutes the key target for antibodies induced upon infection and vaccination. Here, using a surrogate system for viral entry, we provide evidence that a naturally occurring mutation can liberate SARS-CoV-2 from ACE2-dependence and that ACE2-independent entry may protect the virus from neutralization by an antibody used for COVID-19 therapy.

8.
Cell Rep ; 39(3): 110694, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778029

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the spike protein generated a highly infectious and transmissible D614G variant, which is present in newly evolved fast-spreading variants. The D614G, Alpha, Beta, and Delta spike variants of SARS-CoV-2 appear to expedite membrane fusion process for entry, but the mechanism of spike-mediated fusion is unknown. Here, we reconstituted an in vitro pseudovirus-liposome fusion reaction and report that SARS-CoV-2 wild-type spike is a dynamic Ca2+ sensor, and D614G mutation enhances dynamic calcium sensitivity of spike protein for facilitating membrane fusion. This dynamic calcium sensitivity for fusion is found to be higher in Alpha and Beta variants and highest in Delta spike variant. We find that efficient fusion is dependent on Ca2+ concentration at low pH, and the fusion activity of spike dropped as the Ca2+ level rose beyond physiological levels. Thus, evolved spike variants may control the high fusion probability for entry by increasing Ca2+ sensing ability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Calcium , Humans , Membrane Fusion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0218621, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736028

ABSTRACT

Recent emergence of SARS-CoV-1 variants demonstrates the potential of this virus for targeted evolution, despite its overall genomic stability. Here we show the dynamics and the mechanisms behind the rapid adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 to growth in Vero E6 cells. The selective advantage for growth in Vero E6 cells is due to increased cleavage efficiency by cathepsins at the mutated S1/S2 site. S1/S2 site also constitutes a heparan sulfate (HS) binding motif that influenced virus growth in Vero E6 cells, but HS antagonist did not inhibit virus adaptation in these cells. The entry of Vero E6-adapted virus into human cells is defective because the mutated spike variants are poorly processed by furin or TMPRSS2. Minor subpopulation that lack the furin cleavage motif in the spike protein rapidly become dominant upon passaging through Vero E6 cells, but wild type sequences are maintained at low percentage in the virus swarm and mediate a rapid reverse adaptation if the virus is passaged again on TMPRSS2+ human cells. Our data show that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly adapt itself to available proteases and argue for deep sequence surveillance to identify the emergence of novel variants. IMPORTANCE Recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (alpha variant), B.1.617.2 (delta variant), and B.1.1.529 (omicron variant) harbor spike mutations and have been linked to increased virus pathogenesis. The emergence of these novel variants highlights coronavirus adaptation and evolution potential, despite the stable consensus genotype of clinical isolates. We show that subdominant variants maintained in the virus population enable the virus to rapidly adapt to selection pressure. Although these adaptations lead to genotype change, the change is not absolute and genomes with original genotype are maintained in the virus swarm. Thus, our results imply that the relative stability of SARS-CoV-2 in numerous independent clinical isolates belies its potential for rapid adaptation to new conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Furin/genetics , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
10.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(6): 970-977, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729126

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines and monoclonal antibodies have been developed against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the appearance of virus variants with higher transmissibility and pathogenicity is a major concern because of their potential to escape vaccines and clinically approved SARS-CoV-2- antibodies. Here, we use flow cytometry-based binding and pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays to determine the efficacy of boost immunization and therapeutic antibodies to neutralize the dominant Omicron variant. We provide compelling evidence that the third vaccination with BNT162b2 increases the amount of neutralizing serum antibodies against Delta and Omicron variants, albeit to a lower degree when compared to the parental Wuhan strain. Therefore, a third vaccination is warranted to increase titers of protective serum antibodies, especially in the case of the Omicron variant. We also found that most clinically approved and otherwise potent therapeutic antibodies against the Delta variant failed to recognize and neutralize the Omicron variant. In contrast, some antibodies under preclinical development potentially neutralized the Omicron variant. Our studies also support using a flow cytometry-based antibody binding assay to rapidly monitor therapeutic candidates and serum titers against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(5): 810-815, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729125

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are important to protect against infection and/or disease. Using an assay to detect antibodies directed against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike, we identified individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection after an outbreak at a local health institution. All but one COVID-19 patient developed detectable anti-RBD antibodies and 77% had virus neutralizing antibody titers of >1:25. Antibody levels declined slightly over time. However, we still detected virus neutralizing antibody titers in 64% of the COVID-19 patients at >300 days after infection, demonstrating durability of neutralizing antibody levels after infection. Importantly, full COVID-19 vaccination of these individuals resulted in higher antibody titers compared to fully vaccinated individuals in the absence of prior infection. These data demonstrate long-lived antibody-mediated immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a clear benefit of two vaccine doses for recovered individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
Cell ; 185(3): 447-456.e11, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712497

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant suggests that the virus might become globally dominant. Further, the high number of mutations in the viral spike protein raised concerns that the virus might evade antibodies induced by infection or vaccination. Here, we report that the Omicron spike was resistant against most therapeutic antibodies but remained susceptible to inhibition by sotrovimab. Similarly, the Omicron spike evaded neutralization by antibodies from convalescent patients or individuals vaccinated with the BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine (BNT162b2) with 12- to 44-fold higher efficiency than the spike of the Delta variant. Neutralization of the Omicron spike by antibodies induced upon heterologous ChAdOx1 (Astra Zeneca-Oxford)/BNT162b2 vaccination or vaccination with three doses of BNT162b2 was more efficient, but the Omicron spike still evaded neutralization more efficiently than the Delta spike. These findings indicate that most therapeutic antibodies will be ineffective against the Omicron variant and that double immunization with BNT162b2 might not adequately protect against severe disease induced by this variant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Male , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination , Vero Cells
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308569

ABSTRACT

Global pandemics by influenza or coronaviruses cause severe disruptions to the public health and lead to severe morbidity and mortality. Vaccines against these pathogens remain a medical need. CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a β-herpesvirus that induces uniquely robust immune responses, where outstandingly large populations of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells are maintained for a lifetime. Hence, CMV has been proposed and investigated as a novel vaccine vector expressing antigenic peptides or proteins to elicit protective cellular immune responses against numerous pathogens. We generated two recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) vaccine vectors expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (MCMVHA) or the spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (MCMVS). A single shot of MCMVs expressing either viral protein induced potent neutralizing antibody responses, which strengthened over time. Importantly, MCMVHA vaccinated mice were protected from illness following challenge with the influenza virus, and we excluded that this protection was due to effects of memory T cells. Conclusively, we show here that MCMV vectors do not only induce long-term cellular immunity, but also humoral responses that provide long-term immune protection against clinically relevant respiratory pathogens.

15.
Mol Inform ; : e2100231, 2022 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as global pandemic disease has been adversely affecting public health and social life with considerable loss of human life worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutics to combat COVID-19. The causative agent of COVID-19 is SARS-CoV-2 which targets human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as cellular receptor via its spike (S) protein. In this context, interfering with the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S protein to target molecules could provide a promising strategy to find novel therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of the current study was to identify potential peptidomimetics against S protein with a combination of structure-based virtual screening methods and in vitro assays. METHODS: The candidates were inspected in terms of ADME properties, drug-likeness, as well as toxicity profiles. Additionally, molecular docking and dynamics simulations were performed to predict binding of the studied ligands to spike protein. RESULTS: Biological evaluation of the compounds revealed that PM2 molecule exhibits some antiviral activity. CONCLUSION: In summary, this study highlights the importance of combining in silico and in vitro techniques in order to identify antiviral compound to tackle COVID-19 and presents a new scaffold that may be structurally optimized for improved antiviral activity.

16.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(1): 65, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616112

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to more than 260 million confirmed infections and 5 million deaths to date. While vaccination is a powerful tool to control pandemic spread, medication to relieve COVID-19-associated symptoms and alleviate disease progression especially in high-risk patients is still lacking. In this study, we explore the suitability of the rapid accelerated fibrosarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) pathway as a druggable target in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We find that SARS-CoV-2 transiently activates Raf/MEK/ERK signaling in the very early infection phase and that ERK1/2 knockdown limits virus replication in cell culture models. We demonstrate that ATR-002, a specific inhibitor of the upstream MEK1/2 kinases which is currently evaluated in clinical trials as an anti-influenza drug, displays strong anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in cell lines as well as in primary air-liquid-interphase epithelial cell (ALI) cultures, with a safe and selective treatment window. We also observe that ATR-002 treatment impairs the SARS-CoV-2-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus might prevent COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation, a key player in COVID-19 progression. Thus, our data suggest that the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade may represent a target for therapeutic intervention strategies against SARS-CoV-2 infections and that ATR-002 is a promising candidate for further drug evaluation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fenamates/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , MAP Kinase Kinase 1/metabolism , MAP Kinase Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors , MAP Kinase Kinase 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(2): 234-244, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612184

ABSTRACT

Global pandemics caused by influenza or coronaviruses cause severe disruptions to public health and lead to high morbidity and mortality. There remains a medical need for vaccines against these pathogens. CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a ß-herpesvirus that induces uniquely robust immune responses in which remarkably large populations of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells are maintained for a lifetime. Hence, CMV has been proposed and investigated as a novel vaccine vector for expressing antigenic peptides or proteins to elicit protective cellular immune responses against numerous pathogens. We generated two recombinant murine CMV (MCMV) vaccine vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (MCMVHA) or the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (MCMVS). A single injection of MCMVs expressing either viral protein induced potent neutralizing antibody responses, which strengthened over time. Importantly, MCMVHA-vaccinated mice were protected from illness following challenge with the influenza virus, and we excluded that this protection was due to the effects of memory T cells. Conclusively, we show here that MCMV vectors induce not only long-term cellular immunity but also humoral responses that provide long-term immune protection against clinically relevant respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Dogs , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Vero Cells
18.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(3): 449-452, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603596

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged. While some variants spread only locally, others, referred to as variants of concern, disseminated globally and became drivers of the pandemic. All SARS-CoV-2 variants harbor mutations relative to the virus circulating early in the pandemic, and mutations in the viral spike (S) protein are considered of particular relevance since the S protein mediates host cell entry and constitutes the key target of the neutralizing antibody response. As a consequence, mutations in the S protein may increase SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and enable its evasion of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, mutations in the S protein can modulate viral transmissibility and pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Mutation/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization
19.
Eur J Immunol ; 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589126

ABSTRACT

TRIANNI mice carry an entire set of human immunoglobulin V region gene segments and are a powerful tool to rapidly isolate human monoclonal antibodies. After immunizing these mice with DNA encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and boosting with spike protein, we identified 29 hybridoma antibodies that reacted with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Nine antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection at IC50 values in the subnanomolar range. ELISA-binding studies and DNA sequence analyses revealed one cluster of three clonally related neutralizing antibodies that target the receptor-binding domain and compete with the cellular receptor hACE2. A second cluster of six clonally related neutralizing antibodies bind to the N-terminal domain of the spike protein without competing with the binding of hACE2 or cluster 1 antibodies. SARS-CoV-2 mutants selected for resistance to an antibody from one cluster are still neutralized by an antibody from the other cluster. Antibodies from both clusters markedly reduced viral spread in mice transgenic for human ACE2 and protected the animals from SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss. The two clusters of potent noncompeting SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies provide potential candidates for therapy and prophylaxis of COVID-19. The study further supports transgenic animals with a human immunoglobulin gene repertoire as a powerful platform in pandemic preparedness initiatives.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103761, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterologous COVID-19 vaccination regimens combining vector- and mRNA-based vaccines are already administered, but data on solicited adverse reactions, immunological responses and elicited protection are limited. METHODS: To evaluate the reactogenicity and humoral as well as cellular immune responses towards most prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variants after a heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination, we analysed a cohort of 26 clinic employees aged 25-46 (median 30.5) years who received a ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime followed by a BNT162b2 boost after an 8-week interval. Serological data were compared to a cohort which received homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week interval (14 individuals aged 25-65, median 42). FINDINGS: Self-reported solicited symptoms after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime were in line with previous reports and more severe than after the BNT162b2 boost. Antibody titres increased significantly over time resulting in strong neutralization titres two weeks after the BNT162b2 boost and subsequently slightly decreased over the course of 17 weeks. At the latest time point measured, all analysed sera retained neutralizing activity against the currently dominant Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Two weeks post boost, neutralizing activity against the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and immune-evading Beta (B.1.351) variant was ∼4-fold higher than in individuals receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination. No difference was observed in neutralization of Kappa (B.1.617.1). In addition, heterologous vaccination induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells reactive to SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides of all analysed variants; Wuhan-Hu-1, Alpha, Beta, Gamma (P.1), and Delta. INTERPRETATION: In conclusion, heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 / BNT162b2 prime-boost vaccination is not associated with serious adverse events and induces potent humoral and cellular immune responses. The Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Kappa variants of spike are potently neutralized by sera from all participants and reactive T cells recognize spike peptides of all tested variants. These results suggest that this heterologous vaccination regimen is at least as immunogenic and protective as homologous vaccinations and also offers protection against current variants of concern. FUNDING: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, the German Research Foundation, the BMBF, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI), the Baden-Württemberg Stiftung, the county of Lower Saxony, the Ministry for Science, Research and the Arts of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
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