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1.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e138, 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960187

ABSTRACT

We aimed to descriptively analyse the possible impact of the national COVID-19 interventions on the incidence of common infectious diseases in Denmark during spring and summer 2020. This observational study focused on national register data on infections caused by 16 different bacterial and viral pathogens. We included new cases registered between 1 January 2016 and 31 July 2020. The weekly number of new cases were analysed with respect to the COVID-19-related interventions introduced during 2020. We found a marked decrease in infections associated with droplet transmission coinciding with the COVID-19 interventions in spring and summer 2020. These included decreases in both viral and bacterial airway infections and also decreases in invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. There was also a reduction in cases associated with foodborne transmission during the COVID-19 lockdown period. We found no effect of the lockdown on infections by invasive beta-haemolytic streptococci group B, C and G, Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Clostridioides difficile. In conclusion, we found that the widespread interventions such as physical distancing, less travel, hygiene measures and lockdown of schools, restaurants and workplaces together coincided with a marked decline in respiratory infections and, to a smaller extent, some foodborne-transmitted infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Staphylococcal Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(9): 623-631, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate what impact the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated restrictions had on Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, countries with very different governmental strategies for handling this pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected via requests to Swedish regions and to health authorities in Denmark and Norway. The data were collected for the years 2018-2020 and the data from Sweden were more detailed. RESULTS: When the pandemic restrictions were installed in 2020, the number of reported chlamydia cases decreased. The decline was most pronounced in Norway 10.8% (2019: n = 28,446; 2020: n = 25,444) while it was only 3.1% in Denmark (2019: n = 35,688; 2020: n = 34,689) and 4.3% in Sweden (2019: n = 34,726; 2020: n = 33,339). Nucleic acid amplifications tests for chlamydia decreased in Sweden (10%) and Norway (18%) in 2020 compared to 2019, while in Denmark a 21% decrease was noted in April 2020 but thereafter increased to a higher level than 2019. The number of reported gonorrhoea cases decreased in Sweden (17%) and in Norway (39%) in 2020 compared to 2019, while a 21% increase was noted in Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic restrictions had an impact on the number of reported chlamydia infections in all three countries, but only temporarily and did not seem to be correlated to the restriction levels. The number of reported gonorrhoea infections in Sweden and Norway significantly decreased but not in Denmark. Pandemic restrictions appear to have had a limited effect on the spread of chlamydia and gonorrhoea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
3.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 102: adv00704, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785286

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine whether COVID-19 restrictions had an impact on Chlamydia trachomatis infections compared with 2018 and 2019. A retrospective nationwide observational study was performed using monthly incidences of laboratory-confirmed chlamydia cases and number of tests, obtained from Danish national surveillance data. Testing rates and positivity rates were compared using Poisson and logistic regression. The first Danish COVID-19 lockdown (12 March to 14 April 2020) resulted in a reduction in the number of chlamydia tests performed (rate ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval  0.71-0.73) and a consequent reduction in the number of laboratory-identified cases (66.5 vs 88.3 per 100,000 population during the same period in 2018 to 2019). This period was followed by a return of testing and test positivity close to the level seen in 2018 to 2019. The second Danish COVID-19 lockdown (17 December to 31 March 2021) resulted in crude incidence rates of laboratory-confirmed chlamydia infection that were similar to the crude incidence rates seen during same period in 2018 to 2019. In conclusion, the Danish COVID-19 restrictions have had negligible effects on laboratory-confirmed C. trachomatis transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Chlamydia trachomatis , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(3): 1175-1184, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516855

ABSTRACT

Using provisional or opportunistic data, three nationwide studies (The Netherlands, the USA and Denmark) have identified a reduction in preterm or extremely preterm births during periods of COVID-19 restrictions. However, none of the studies accounted for perinatal deaths. To determine whether the reduction in extremely preterm births, observed in Denmark during the COVID-19 lockdown, could be the result of an increase in perinatal deaths and to assess the impact of extended COVID-19 restrictions, we performed a nationwide Danish register-based prevalence proportion study. We examined all singleton pregnancies delivered in Denmark during the COVID-19 strict lockdown calendar periods (March 12-April 14, 2015-2020, N = 31,164 births) and the extended calendar periods of COVID-19 restrictions (February 27-September 30, 2015-2020, N = 214,862 births). The extremely preterm birth rate was reduced (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.86) during the strict lockdown period in 2020, while perinatal mortality was not significantly different. During the extended period of restrictions in 2020, the extremely preterm birth rate was marginally reduced, and a significant reduction in the stillbirth rate (OR 0.69, 0.50 to 0.95) was observed. No changes in early neonatal mortality rates were found.Conclusion: Stillbirth and extremely preterm birth rates were reduced in Denmark during the period of COVID-19 restrictions and lockdown, respectively, suggesting that aspects of these containment and control measures confer an element of protection. The present observational study does not allow for causal inference; however, the results support the design of studies to ascertain whether behavioural or social changes for pregnant women may improve pregnancy outcomes. What is Known: • The aetiologies of preterm birth and stillbirth are multifaceted and linked to a wide range of socio-demographic, medical, obstetric, foetal, psychosocial and environmental factors. • The COVID-19 lockdown saw a reduction in extremely preterm births in Denmark and other high-income countries. An urgent question is whether this reduction can be explained by increased perinatal mortality. What is New: • The reduction in extremely preterm births during the Danish COVID-19 lockdown was not a consequence of increased perinatal mortality, which remained unchanged during this period. • The stillbirth rate was reduced throughout the extended period of COVID-19 restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Premature Birth , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology
5.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e360-e370, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FINDINGS: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Neisseria meningitidis , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Public Health Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
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