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1.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 211(1): 37-48, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626115

ABSTRACT

Mechanisms underlying the SARS-CoV-2-triggered hyperacute thrombo-inflammatory response that causes multi-organ damage in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. Several lines of evidence implicate overactivation of complement. To delineate the involvement of complement in COVID-19, we prospectively studied 25 ICU-hospitalized patients for up to 21 days. Complement biomarkers in patient sera and healthy controls were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Correlations with respiratory function and mortality were analyzed. Activation of complement via the classical/lectin pathways was variably increased. Strikingly, all patients had increased activation of the alternative pathway (AP) with elevated levels of activation fragments, Ba and Bb. This was associated with a reduction of the AP negative regulator, factor (F) H. Correspondingly, terminal pathway biomarkers of complement activation, C5a and sC5b-9, were significantly elevated in all COVID-19 patient sera. C5a and AP constituents Ba and Bb, were significantly associated with hypoxemia. Ba and FD at the time of ICU admission were strong independent predictors of mortality in the following 30 days. Levels of all complement activation markers were sustained throughout the patients' ICU stays, contrasting with the varying serum levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Severely ill COVID-19 patients have increased and persistent activation of complement, mediated strongly via the AP. Complement activation biomarkers may be valuable measures of severity of lung disease and the risk of mortality. Large-scale studies will reveal the relevance of these findings to thrombo-inflammation in acute and post-acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Complement Activation , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Blood Rev ; 45: 100707, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064893

ABSTRACT

A subset of patients with severe COVID-19 develop profound inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction consistent with a "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS). In this review we compare the clinical features, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of COVID-CSS with other hematological CSS, namely secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH), idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD), and CAR-T cell therapy associated Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). Novel therapeutics targeting cytokines or inhibiting cell signaling pathways have now become the mainstay of treatment in these CSS. We review the evidence for cytokine blockade and attenuation in these known CSS as well as the emerging literature and clinical trials pertaining to COVID-CSS. Established markers of inflammation as well as cytokine levels are compared and contrasted between these four entities in order to establish a foundation for future diagnostic criteria of COVID-CSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Castleman Disease/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Castleman Disease/drug therapy , Castleman Disease/pathology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Ferritins/blood , Ferritins/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/adverse effects , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1/blood , Interleukin-1/immunology , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/pathology , Signal Transduction
4.
Blood Adv ; 4(20): 4981-4989, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873909

ABSTRACT

Studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) suggest a protective effect of anti-A antibodies against viral cell entry that may hold relevance for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether ABO blood groups are associated with different severities of COVID-19. We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis and nested prospective observational substudy of critically ill patients with COVID-19. We collected data pertaining to age, sex, comorbidities, dates of symptom onset, hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), standard laboratory parameters, and serum inflammatory cytokines. National (N = 398 671; P = .38) and provincial (n = 62 246; P = .60) ABO blood group distributions did not differ from our cohort (n = 95). A higher proportion of COVID-19 patients with blood group A or AB required mechanical ventilation (P = .02) and CRRT (P = .004) and had a longer ICU stay (P = .03) compared with patients with blood group O or B. Blood group A or AB also had an increased probability of requiring mechanical ventilation and CRRT after adjusting for age, sex, and presence of ≥1 comorbidity. Inflammatory cytokines did not differ between patients with blood group A or AB (n = 11) vs O or B (n = 14; P > .10 for all cytokines). Collectively, our data indicate that critically ill COVID-19 patients with blood group A or AB are at increased risk for requiring mechanical ventilation, CRRT, and prolonged ICU admission compared with patients with blood group O or B. Further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0238, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873089

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To provide an objective characterization of acute neurologic injury in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. Demographics, comorbidities, and daily clinical physiologic and laboratory data were collected. Plasma levels of neurofilament-light chain, total tau, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were measured. The primary neurologic outcome was delirium defined by the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (scale 1-8). Associations among plasma biomarkers, respiratory failure, and inflammation were analyzed. SETTING: Multicenter study in ICUs. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients with respiratory failure, with coronavirus disease 2019, or without (ICU control). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 27 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and 19 ICU controls were enrolled. Compared with ICU controls with pneumonia of other etiology, patients with coronavirus disease 2019 had significantly higher glial fibrillary acidic protein (272 pg/mL [150-555 pg/mL] vs 118 pg/mL [78.5-168 pg/mL]; p = 0.0009). In coronavirus disease 2019 patients, glial fibrillary acidic protein (rho = 0.5115, p = 0.0064), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (rho = 0.4056, p = 0.0358), and neurofilament-light chain (rho = 0.6223, p = 0.0005) positively correlated with Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score and were increased in patients with delirium (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist ≥ 4) in the coronavirus disease 2019 group but not in ICU controls. There were no associations between the measures of respiratory function or cytokines with glial fibrillary acidic protein, total tau, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, or neurofilament-light chain levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein is two-fold higher in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 compared with ICU controls. Higher levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, and neurofilament-light chain associate with delirium in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Elevated plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1, and neurofilament-light chain are independent of respiratory function and peripheral cytokines.

6.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0203, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 mortality and morbidity is attributable to respiratory failure from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The pathogenesis underpinning coronavirus disease 2019-induced respiratory failure may be attributable to a dysregulated host immune response. Our objective was to investigate the pathophysiological relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and respiratory failure in severe coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Multicenter prospective observational study. SETTING: ICU. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and noncoronavirus disease 2019 critically ill patients with respiratory failure (ICU control group). INTERVENTIONS: Daily measurement of serum inflammatory cytokines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Demographics, comorbidities, clinical, physiologic, and laboratory data were collected daily. Daily serum samples were drawn for measurements of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pulmonary outcomes were the ratio of Pao2/Fio2 and static lung compliance. Twenty-six patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and 22 ICU controls were enrolled. Of the patients with coronavirus disease 2019, 58% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, 62% required mechanical ventilation, 12% underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 23% died. A negative correlation between interleukin-6 and Pao2/Fio2 (rho, -0.531; p = 0.0052) and static lung compliance (rho, -0.579; p = 0.033) was found selectively in the coronavirus disease 2019 group. Diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with significantly elevated serum interleukin-6 and interleukin-1ß on the day of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse relationship between serum interleukin-6 and Pao2/Fio2 and static lung compliance is specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in critically ill patients with respiratory failure. Similar observations were not found with interleukin-ß or tumor necrosis factor-α.

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