Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321758

ABSTRACT

AbstractPurpose: The objectives of the current study were to: (1) assess the impact of household structure (i.e. living alone compared to living with children, a partner, or both) and presence of children on mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic;and (2) determine whether these associations are moderated by income or sex. Results: A total of 2,524 adults aged 25-55 were included in the analytic sample. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine associations between explanatory variables and mental distress, measured via the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-4. In adjusted models, each additional child under the age of 12 was associated a decrease in mental distress (β=-0.21, p=0.03). This finding was significant when adjusting for sociodemographic variables (age, sex, race, education, household income, living with a partner, and currently having a job) and historical depressive symptoms (CESD-8). Having children between the ages of 13 and 18 and household structure were not significantly associated with mental distress. Conclusion: This study supports prior literature that demonstrates the positive association of childrearing with psychological well-being, and suggests that these benefits may be present even under stay-at-home orders in the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Addiction ; 117(2): 331-340, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612824

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine changes in drinking behavior among United States (US) adults between March 10 and July 21, 2020, a critical period during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Longitudinal, internet-based panel survey. SETTING: The Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally representative panel of US adults age 18 or older. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4298 US adults who reported alcohol use. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in number of reported drinking days from March 11, 2020 through July 21, 2020 in the overall sample and stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, household structure, poverty status, and census region. FINDINGS: Compared with March 11, the number of drinking days per week was significantly higher on April 1 by an average of 0.36 days (95% CI = 0.30, 0.43), on May 1 by an average of 0.55 days (95% CI = 0.47, 0.63), on June 1 by an average of 0.41 days (95% CI = 0.33, 0.49), and on July 1 by an average of 0.39 days (95% CI = 0.31, 0.48). Males, White participants, and older adults reported sustained increases in drinking days, whereas female participants and individuals living under the federal poverty line had attenuated drinking days in the latter part of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Between March and mid-July 2020, adults in the United States reported increases in the number of drinking days, with sustained increases observed among males, White participants, and older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
Fam Syst Health ; 40(1): 46-59, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586009

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The objectives of the current study were to (1) assess associations between household structure (i.e., living with spouse compared to living alone, with children, or with a spouse and children), presence of children, and mental distress in April 2020 and change in mental distress (between April and August 2020); and (2) determine whether these associations are moderated by income or sex. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2,214 adults aged 25-55 from the April and August 2020 waves of the Understanding America study were included in the analytic sample. STUDY METHOD: Multivariable, survey-weighted linear regression models were used to examine associations between explanatory variables (i.e., household structure and number of children) and outcome variables (mental distress in April and change in mental distress), measured via the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-4. RESULTS: In adjusted models, each additional child under the age of 12 was associated with lower mental distress in April 2020 (ß = -.30, p = .002). Having children aged 13 to 18 and household structure were not significantly associated with mental distress. In interaction models, living with children only was associated with decreased mental distress among individuals reporting low income (interaction ß = -1.28, p = .016) but not high income. Similarly, living with children only was associated with decreased mental distress in females (interaction ß = -1.09, p = .025) but not males. CONCLUSION: This study supports prior literature that demonstrates the positive association of child rearing with psychological well-being and suggests that these benefits may be present even under stay-at-home orders in the early stages of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 360-368, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although general anxiety has increased markedly since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, little has been reported about the demographic distribution of COVID-19 related worry, its relationship with psychological features, and its association with depression symptoms in the United States (US). METHODS: 2117 participants, selected to represent the age, gender, and race/ethnic distributions of the US population, completed an online survey. Analysis of variance and correlation analyses were used to assess relationships between the COVID-19 related worry score and demographic characteristics, past psychiatric diagnoses, personality dimensions, and current psychological symptoms. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the COVID-19 worry score and depression symptoms. RESULTS: The COVID-19 worry score was markedly higher in younger (18-49 year-olds) than older participants, and moderately higher in men, those who were married or cohabiting, with post-college education, and/or living in large urban areas. The COVID-19 worry score also was markedly higher in those who reported having been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. The COVID-19 worry score correlated with neuroticism, current psychological symptoms, and COVID-19 risk and COVID-19 behavior scores. The COVID-19 worry score was associated with current depression symptoms (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.09-1.11; p < 0.001) in univariable models and remained significant after adjustment for other correlates of depression, including COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this US sample, the COVID-19 worry score was inversely related to age, strongly related to psychological symptoms, and independently associated with depression symptoms. These findings have implications for the community mental health response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
Addiction ; 117(2): 331-340, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413284

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine changes in drinking behavior among United States (US) adults between March 10 and July 21, 2020, a critical period during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Longitudinal, internet-based panel survey. SETTING: The Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally representative panel of US adults age 18 or older. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4298 US adults who reported alcohol use. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in number of reported drinking days from March 11, 2020 through July 21, 2020 in the overall sample and stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, household structure, poverty status, and census region. FINDINGS: Compared with March 11, the number of drinking days per week was significantly higher on April 1 by an average of 0.36 days (95% CI = 0.30, 0.43), on May 1 by an average of 0.55 days (95% CI = 0.47, 0.63), on June 1 by an average of 0.41 days (95% CI = 0.33, 0.49), and on July 1 by an average of 0.39 days (95% CI = 0.31, 0.48). Males, White participants, and older adults reported sustained increases in drinking days, whereas female participants and individuals living under the federal poverty line had attenuated drinking days in the latter part of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Between March and mid-July 2020, adults in the United States reported increases in the number of drinking days, with sustained increases observed among males, White participants, and older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
6.
Autism Res ; 14(10): 2183-2188, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344962

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may disproportionately impact parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Loss of services and supports, heightened fears about increased infection rates, and disruption of daily routines likely adversely affect the well-being of children with ASD and their families. The goal of this study was to examine differences in psychological distress-as defined by symptoms of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and hyperarousal-between parents raising a child with ASD and parents in the US as a whole during the early stages of the pandemic (March-April 2020). Parents raising a child with ASD (n = 3556) were recruited through SPARK, a national ASD research registry, whereas a representative sample of parents in the US (n = 5506) were recruited from the Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel. All data were captured via online surveys. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regressions examined psychological distress at the item and summary score level. Parents of children with ASD reported higher levels of overall psychological distress (48% vs. 25%; aOR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.84, p < 0.001). Hyperarousal, or feelings of panic when thinking about COVID-19, was particularly prevalent among parents of children with ASD compared to parents in the US (25% vs. 9%; aOR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.83, 3.07, p < 0.001). Findings highlight the importance of considering the policies and practices that contribute to poor mental health in parents, particularly those raising a child with ASD, to ensure mental health services remain accessible. LAY SUMMARY: This study examined the mental health of parents raising a child with ASD during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results demonstrated substantially higher levels of psychological distress, particularly those related to feelings of panic, among parents raising a child with ASD when compared to parents in the US as a whole. These data suggest the need for ensuring mental health services are accessible to parents, particularly those raising a child with ASD, during and after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Caregivers , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
7.
Autism Res ; 14(10): 2113-2119, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298464

ABSTRACT

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at elevated risk for psychiatric problems in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This risk is due to their high rates of pre-pandemic psychiatric comorbidities and the pandemic's disruption to routines and access to necessary supports. Prior research has indicated that children with ASD may experience a worsening of specific psychiatric symptoms in response to COVID-19, though this body of work is limited in scope. The present study expands this literature by examining specific types of psychiatric problems that emerged about 2 months after the onset of the pandemic, and risk factors predicting changes in these psychiatric symptoms. Parents of children with a confirmed ASD diagnosis (N = 257), who enrolled in a clinic registry at an outpatient specialty autism center, were included in this study. All data were gathered online via customized and standardized questionnaires. Results showed that 59% of children experienced either a worsening of their pre-pandemic psychiatric diagnoses and/or the development of new psychiatric symptoms during the pandemic. Multivariable regression models indicated that risk factors for increased psychiatric problems included child understanding of COVID-19, COVID-19 illness in the family, low family income, and elevated parental depression and anxiety symptoms (all p < 0.05). Findings from this study emphasize the urgent need to provide effective and accessible psychiatric services for children with ASD and their families during and after the pandemic. LAY SUMMARY: Children with ASD are at high risk for psychiatric problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that 59% of children in our clinical sample are experiencing increased psychiatric problems. The child's understanding of COVID-19, COVID-19 illness in the family, low family income, and depression and anxiety symptoms in the parent increase the risk for poor mental health during the pandemic. These findings indicate the importance of helping children with ASD access mental health treatment during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 155-162, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contamination-prevention behaviors such as mask wearing and physical distancing are crucial to reduce coronavirus transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesized that engagement in these behaviors could provoke obsessions and phobias in vulnerable individuals in the community. METHODS: A total of 2117 participants, systematically selected to represent the age, gender, and race distributions of the US population, completed an online survey that assessed demographic characteristics, clinical features, COVID-19 risks, and COVID-19 contamination-prevention behaviors. Logistic regression was used to estimate the magnitude of the relationships between the COVID-19 behavior score and clinically significant contamination obsessions, contamination compulsions, and pre-COVID-19 to current change in obsessive-compulsive symptom scores. RESULTS: The COVID-19 behavior score was significantly associated with contamination obsessions (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.12-1.16; p < 0.001) and contamination phobias (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.12-1.16; p < 0.001). The COVID-19 behavior score also was associated with pre-pandemic to current increase in the overall obsessive-compulsive symptom score (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.09-1.23; p < 0.001), as well as increase in obsessive-compulsive symptom score excluding washing items (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.19; p < 0.001). The magnitude of these relationships did not appreciably change, after adjustment for other variables associated with the outcomes. Moreover, the relationship was significant in those with or without OCD, and in individuals with different levels of doubt and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Contamination safety measures are critical for reducing the spread of COVID-19 in the community. However, they may be related to the development of contamination-related symptoms and OCD in vulnerable individuals, complicating the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders during this period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Humans , Obsessive Behavior , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(2): 93-102, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have found that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has negatively affected population-level mental health. Longitudinal studies are necessary to examine trajectories of change in mental health over time and identify sociodemographic groups at risk for persistent distress. PURPOSE: To examine the trajectories of mental distress between March 10 and August 4, 2020, a key period during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants included 6,901 adults from the nationally representative Understanding America Study, surveyed at baseline between March 10 and 31, 2020, with nine follow-up assessments between April 1 and August 4, 2020. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine the association between date and self-reported mental distress (measured with the four-item Patient Health Questionnaire) among U.S. adults overall and among sociodemographic subgroups defined by sex, age, race/ethnicity, household structure, federal poverty line, and census region. RESULTS: Compared to March 11, the odds of mental distress among U.S. adults overall were 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.65-2.07) times higher on April 1 and 1.92 (95% CI = 1.62-2.28) times higher on May 1; by August 1, the odds of mental distress had returned to levels comparable to March 11 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.96). Females experienced a sharper increase in mental distress between March and May compared to males (females: OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.85-2.82; males: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.15-2.02). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the trajectory of mental health symptoms during an unprecedented pandemic, including the identification of populations at risk for sustained mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
10.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 381-385, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychological responses to potentially traumatic events tend to be heterogeneous, with some individuals displaying resilience. Longitudinal associations between resilience and mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the association between resilience and trajectories of mental distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were 6,008 adults from the Understanding America Study, a probability-based Internet-panel representative of the US adult population. Baseline data were collected between March 10 and March 31, 2020, with nine follow-up waves conducted between April 1 and August 4. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine the association between date and mental distress, stratified by resilience level (low, normal, or high). RESULTS: In contrast to the high resilience group, participants in the low and normal resilience groups experienced increases in mental distress in the early months of the pandemic (low: OR=2.94, 95% CI=1.93-4.46; normal: OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.55-2.35). Men, middle-aged and older adults, Black adults, and adults with a graduate degree were more likely to report high resilience, whereas adults living below the poverty line were less likely to report high resilience. LIMITATIONS: These associations should not be interpreted as causal, and resilience was measured at only one time-point. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of mental distress varied markedly by resilience level during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, with low-resilience adults reporting the largest increases in mental distress during this crisis. Activities that foster resilience should be included in broader strategies to support mental health throughout the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(11): 1628-1634, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982652

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental distress in US adults.Methods. Participants were 5065 adults from the Understanding America Study, a probability-based Internet panel representative of the US adult population. The main exposure was survey completion date (March 10-16, 2020). The outcome was mental distress measured via the 4-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire.Results. Among states with 50 or more COVID-19 cases as of March 10, each additional day was significantly associated with an 11% increase in the odds of moving up a category of distress (odds ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval = 1.01, 1.21; P = .02). Perceptions about the likelihood of getting infected, death from the virus, and steps taken to avoid infecting others were associated with increased mental distress in the model that included all states. Individuals with higher consumption of alcohol or cannabis or with history of depressive symptoms were at significantly higher risk for mental distress.Conclusions. These data suggest that as the COVID-19 pandemic continues, mental distress may continue to increase and should be regularly monitored. Specific populations are at high risk for mental distress, particularly those with preexisting depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Insurance, Health , Male , Marijuana Smoking/epidemiology , Medically Uninsured , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Prev Med ; 139: 106231, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692091

ABSTRACT

Most individuals in the United States have no history of a mental health condition yet are at risk for psychological distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency and risk and protective factors of psychological distress, during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, in this group. Data comes from the Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel (ATP), a probability-based online survey panel representative of the US adult population. The analytic sample consisted of 9687 individuals with no prior history of a mental health condition who completed the survey between March 19-24, 2020. Explanatory variables included sociodemographic factors and items related to behavior, perceptions, and experiences surrounding the pandemic. The outcome was psychological distress, measured by five items on symptoms of anxiety, depression, loneliness, sleep difficulties, and hyperarousal. A multivariable linear regression model was used to identify risk and protective factors for psychological distress. Fifteen percent of the sample experienced 2 psychological distress symptoms for at least 3 days over the past week; 13% had three or more symptoms. Risk factors for higher distress included searching online or using social media to post about coronavirus, reporting that the outbreak caused major changes to personal life, and perception that the virus was a threat to the US economy, the individual's personal health or finances. This has important implications for mental health service delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
13.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(5): 630-638, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641666

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to disaster-related media may be a risk factor for mental distress, but this has not been examined in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assesses whether exposure to social and traditional media during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with mental distress among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data came from the Understanding America Study, conducted with a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adults who completed surveys online. Participants included 6,329 adults surveyed between March 10 and March 31, 2020. Regression analyses examined the associations of (1) self-reported average time spent on social media in a day (hours) and (2) number of traditional media sources (radio, TV, and newspaper) consulted to learn about COVID-19 with self-reported mental distress (4-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Data were analyzed in April 2020. RESULTS: Participants responding at later survey dates reported more time spent on social media (ß=0.02, 95% CI=0.01, 0.03), a greater number of traditional media sources consulted to learn about COVID-19 (ß=0.01, 95% CI=0.01, 0.02), and greater mental distress (ß=0.07, 95% CI=0.04, 0.09). Increased time spent on social media and consulting a greater number of traditional media sources to learn about COVID-19 were independently associated with increased mental distress, even after adjusting for potential confounders (social media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.05, 0.23; traditional media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.08, 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a greater number of traditional media sources and more hours on social media was modestly associated with mental distress during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Social Environment , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Correlation of Data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL