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Stroke ; 52(11): e706-e709, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371922
Neurology ; 96(11): e1527-e1538, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028513


OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is protean in its manifestations, affecting nearly every organ system. However, nervous system involvement and its effect on disease outcome are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether neurologic syndromes are associated with increased risk of inpatient mortality. METHODS: A total of 581 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, neurologic involvement, and brain imaging were compared to hospitalized non-neurologic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Four patterns of neurologic manifestations were identified: acute stroke, new or recrudescent seizures, altered mentation with normal imaging, and neuro-COVID-19 complex. Factors present on admission were analyzed as potential predictors of in-hospital mortality, including sociodemographic variables, preexisting comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory values, and pattern of neurologic manifestations. Significant predictors were incorporated into a disease severity score. Patients with neurologic manifestations were matched with patients of the same age and disease severity to assess the risk of death. RESULTS: A total of 4,711 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to one medical system in New York City during a 6-week period. Of these, 581 (12%) had neurologic issues of sufficient concern to warrant neuroimaging. These patients were compared to 1,743 non-neurologic patients with COVID-19 matched for age and disease severity admitted during the same period. Patients with altered mentation (n = 258, p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 1.39, confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.86) or radiologically confirmed stroke (n = 55, p = 0.001, OR 3.1, CI 1.65-5.92) had a higher risk of mortality than age- and severity-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of altered mentation or stroke on admission predicts a modest but significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality independent of disease severity. While other biomarker factors also predict mortality, measures to identify and treat such patients may be important in reducing overall mortality of COVID-19.

COVID-19/mortality , Confusion/physiopathology , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Ataxia/epidemiology , Ataxia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Confusion/epidemiology , Consciousness Disorders/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/epidemiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/physiopathology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Primary Dysautonomias/epidemiology , Primary Dysautonomias/physiopathology , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vertigo/physiopathology
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106112, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669659


OBJECTIVE: We aim to characterize the incidence, risk for mortality, and identify risk factors for mortality in patients presenting with hemorrhage and COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included a cohort of patients admitted to one of three major hospitals of our healthcare network including, an academic medical center and comprehensive stroke center, which accepts transfers for complex cases from eight community hospitals, during March 1 to May 1, 2020. All patients that received imaging of the neuroaxis and had positive PCR testing for COVID-19 were identified and reviewed by an attending neuroradiologist. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Biomarkers were recorded from the day of the hemorrhagic event. Vital signs from the day of the hemorrhagic event mechanical ventilation orders at admission were recorded. Imaging findings were divided into 5 subtypes; acute subdural hematoma (SDH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), multi-compartmental hemorrhage (MCH), multi-focal intracerebral hemorrhage (MFH), and focal intracerebral hemorrhage (fICH). Outcomes were recorded as non-routine discharge and mortality. RESULTS: We found a total of 35 out of 5227 patients with COVID-19 that had hemorrhage of some kind. Mortality for the entire cohort was 45.7 % (n = 16). SDH patients had a mortality rate of 35.3 % (n = 6), SAH had a mortality of 50 % (n = 1), MCH patients had a mortality of 71.4 % (n = 5), MFH patients had a mortality of 50 % (n = 2), fICH patients had a mortality of 40 % (n = 2). Patients with severe pulmonary COVID requiring mechanical ventilation (OR 10.24 [.43-243.12] p = 0.015), with INR > 1.2 on the day of the hemorrhagic event (OR 14.36 [1.69-122.14] p = 0.015], and patients presenting with spontaneous vs. traumatic hemorrhage (OR 6.11 [.31-118.89] p = 0.023) had significantly higher risk for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Hemorrhagic presentations with COVID-19 are a rare but serious way in which the illness can manifest. It is important for neurosurgeons to realize that patients can present with these findings without primary pulmonary symptoms, and that severe pulmonary symptoms, elevated INR, and spontaneous hemorrhagic presentations is associated with increased risk for mortality.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1495-1498, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71778


The COVID-19 pandemic has stretched health care resources to a point of crisis throughout the world. To answer the call for care, health care workers in a diverse range of specialties are being retasked to care for patients with COVID-19. Consequently, specialty services have had to adapt to decreased staff available for coverage coupled with a need to remain available for specialty-specific emergencies, which now require a dynamic definition. In this Invited Commentary, the authors describe their experiences and share lessons learned regarding triage of patients, staff safety, workforce management, and the psychological impact as they have adapted to a new reality in the Department of Neurosurgery at Montefiore Medical Center, a COVID-19 hot spot in New York City.

Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Workforce/organization & administration , Medicine/organization & administration , Pandemics , Personnel Management/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2