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Am Anthropol ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886638


This commentary asks anthropologists to work within communities to actively address the global mental health impact of COVID-19 and contribute to the pandemic response. Multiple social and physical losses, worsened by numerous factors, have produced syndemic traumatic stress and suffering across populations, highlighting persistent inequalities further amplified by the effects of COVID-19. Specifically, anthropologists can work to contribute to the development of mental health programs; confront the racialization of COVID-19 alongside marginalized communities; support real-time policy making with community responses; and innovate transparent collaborative research methods through open science. This pandemic can serve as an opportunity to prioritize research endeavors, public service, and teaching to better align with societal needs while providing new opportunities for synergy and collaborations between anthropologists in and outside the academy. Anthropologists collaborating directly with mental health clinicians and the public can contribute to knowledge specifically through direct program development and implementation of interventions designed to improve mental well-being. Innovating to find impactful solutions in response to the unprecedented mental health challenges exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to promote more equitable recovery around the world.

AMA J Ethics ; 24(4): E275-282, 2022 04 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782529


Migrants along the US-Mexico border have been subjected to transnational violence created by international policy, militaristic intervention, and multinational organizational administration of border operations. The COVID-19 pandemic compounded migrants' vulnerabilities and provoked several logistical and ethical problems for US-based clinicians and organizations. This commentary examines how the concept of transnational solidarity facilitates analysis of clinicians' and migrants' shared historical and structural vulnerabilities. This commentary also suggests how actions implemented by one organization in Tijuana, Mexico, could be scaled more broadly for care of migrants and asylum seekers in other transnational health care settings.

Los migrantes en la frontera entre EE. UU. y México han sufrido violencia transnacional por parte de la policía internacional, la intervención militar y la administración organizativa multinacional de las operaciones fronterizas. La pandemia de la COVID-19 agravó las vulnerabilidades de los migrantes y provocó varios problemas logísticos y éticos para los médicos y las organizaciones estadounidenses. Este comentario examina de qué manera el concepto de solidaridad transnacional facilita el análisis de los médicos y las vulnerabilidades históricas y estructurales compartidas de los migrantes. También, sugiere cómo las acciones implementadas por una organización en Tijuana, México, podrían aplicarse a mayor escala para la atención de los migrantes y solicitantes de asilo en otros entornos de atención médica transnacional.

COVID-19 , Refugees , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Mexico , Pandemics
Glob Public Health ; 15(7): 1083-1089, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373601


The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the critical need to reimagine and repair the broken systems of global health. Specifically, the pandemic demonstrates the hollowness of the global health rhetoric of equity, the weaknesses of a health security-driven global health agenda, and the negative health impacts of power differentials not only globally, but also regionally and locally. This article analyses the effects of these inequities and calls on governments, multilateral agencies, universities, and NGOs to engage in true collaboration and partnership in this historic moment. Before this pandemic spreads further - including in the Global South - with potentially extreme impact, we must work together to rectify the field and practice of global health.

Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Health Care Sector/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cooperative Behavior , Humans , Interinstitutional Relations , Pandemics , Public Health Administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Justice , Social Responsibility
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 1)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352554


This article brings the social science concept of 'deservingness' to bear on clinical cases of transnational migrant patients. Based on the authors' medical social science research, health delivery practice and clinical work from multiple locations in Africa. Europe and the Americas, the article describes three clinical cases in which assumptions of deservingness have significant implications for the morbidity and mortality of migrant patients. The concept of deservingness allows us to maintain a critical awareness of the often unspoken presumptions of which categories of patients are more or less deserving of access to and quality of care, regardless of their formal legal eligibility. Many transnational migrants with ambiguous legal status who rely on public healthcare experience exclusion from care or poor treatment based on notions of deservingness held by health clinic staff, clinicians and health system planners. The article proposes several implications for clinicians, health professional education, policymaking and advocacy. A critical lens on deservingness can help global health professionals, systems and policymakers confront and change entrenched patterns of unequal access to and differential quality of care for migrant patients. In this way, health professionals can work more effectively for global health equity.

Transients and Migrants , Africa , Europe , Global Health , Humans , Social Environment
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(7): e27768, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317177


BACKGROUND: Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. METHODS: The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants' communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.

COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Contact Tracing , France/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129717


The COVID-19 pandemic put clinical research in the media spotlight globally. This article proposes a first measure of familiarity with and attitude toward clinical research in France. Drawing from the "Health Literacy Survey 2019" (HLS19) conducted online between 27 May and 5 June 2020 on a sample of the French adult population (N = 1003), we show that a significant proportion of the French population claimed some familiarity with clinical trials (64.8%) and had positive attitudes (72%) toward them. One of the important findings of this study is that positive attitudes toward clinical research exist side by side with a strong distancing from the pharmaceutical industry. While respondents acknowledged that the pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in clinical research (68.3%), only one-quarter indicated that they trust the industry (25.7%). Positive attitudes toward clinical trials were associated with familiarity with clinical trials (Odds Ratio, OR 2.97 [1.90-4.63]), financial difficulties (OR 0.63 [0.46-0.85]), as well as mistrust of doctors (0.48 [0.27-0.85]) and of scientists (OR 0.62 [0.38-0.99]). Although the French media provided a great deal of information on how clinical research works during the first months of the pandemic, there remains profound mistrust of the pharmaceutical industry in France. This suspicion can undermine crisis management, especially in the areas of vaccine development and preparation for future pandemics.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Attitude , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Soc Anthropol ; 28(2): 380-382, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305909