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1.
Cell Rep ; 39(6): 110799, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881766

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines and monoclonal antibody countermeasures have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, variants with constellations of mutations in the spike gene jeopardize their efficacy. Accordingly, antiviral interventions that are resistant to further virus evolution are needed. The host-derived cytokine interferon lambda (IFN-λ) has been proposed as a possible treatment based on studies in human coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we show that IFN-λ protects against SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants in three strains of conventional and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Prophylaxis or therapy with nasally delivered IFN-λ2 limits infection of historical or variant SARS-CoV-2 strains in the upper and lower respiratory tracts without causing excessive inflammation. In the lung, IFN-λ is produced preferentially in epithelial cells and acts on radio-resistant cells to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, inhaled IFN-λ may have promise as a treatment for evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants that develop resistance to antibody-based countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Interferons , Mice , Mice, Transgenic
2.
J Immunol ; 208(6): 1467-1482, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690085

ABSTRACT

Asthma is a chronic disease of childhood, but for unknown reasons, disease activity sometimes subsides as children mature. In this study, we present clinical and animal model evidence suggesting that the age dependency of childhood asthma stems from an evolving host response to respiratory viral infection. Using clinical data, we show that societal suppression of respiratory virus transmission during coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown disrupted the traditional age gradient in pediatric asthma exacerbations, connecting the phenomenon of asthma remission to virus exposure. In mice, we show that asthmatic lung pathology triggered by Sendai virus (SeV) or influenza A virus is highly age-sensitive: robust in juvenile mice (4-6 wk old) but attenuated in mature mice (>3 mo old). Interestingly, allergen induction of the same asthmatic traits was less dependent on chronological age than viruses. Age-specific responses to SeV included a juvenile bias toward type 2 airway inflammation that emerged early in infection, whereas mature mice exhibited a more restricted bronchiolar distribution of infection that produced a distinct type 2 low inflammatory cytokine profile. In the basal state, aging produced changes to lung leukocyte burden, including the number and transcriptional landscape of alveolar macrophages (AMs). Importantly, depleting AMs in mature mice restored post-SeV pathology to juvenile levels. Thus, aging influences chronic outcomes of respiratory viral infection through regulation of the AM compartment and type 2 inflammatory responses to viruses. Our data provide insight into how asthma remission might develop in children.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aging/physiology , Asthma/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lung/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Respirovirus Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sendai virus/physiology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Animals , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0151121, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621995

ABSTRACT

The development of mouse models for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has enabled testing of vaccines and therapeutics and defining aspects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. SARS-CoV-2 disease is severe in K18 transgenic mice (K18-hACE2 Tg) expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, under an ectopic cytokeratin promoter, with high levels of infection measured in the lung and brain. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 infection in hACE2 knock-in (KI) mice that express hACE2 under an endogenous promoter in place of murine ACE2 (mACE2). Intranasal inoculation of hACE2 KI mice with SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 resulted in substantial viral replication within the upper and lower respiratory tracts with limited spread to extrapulmonary organs. However, SARS-CoV-2-infected hACE2 KI mice did not lose weight and developed limited pathology. Moreover, no significant differences in viral burden were observed in hACE2 KI mice infected with B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 variants compared to the WA1/2020 strain. Because the entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 in mice remain uncertain, we evaluated the impact of the naturally occurring, mouse-adapting N501Y mutation by comparing infection of hACE2 KI, K18-hACE2 Tg, ACE2-deficient, and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. The N501Y mutation minimally affected SARS-CoV-2 infection in hACE2 KI mice but was required for viral replication in wild-type C57BL/6 mice in a mACE2-dependent manner and augmented pathogenesis in the K18-hACE2 Tg mice. Thus, the N501Y mutation likely enhances interactions with mACE2 or hACE2 in vivo. Overall, our study highlights the hACE2 KI mice as a model of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease and clarifies the requirement of the N501Y mutation in mice. IMPORTANCE Mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis have facilitated the rapid evaluation of countermeasures. While the first generation of models developed pneumonia and severe disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection, they relied on ectopic expression of supraphysiological levels of human ACE2 (hACE2). This has raised issues with their relevance to humans, as the hACE2 receptor shows a more restricted expression pattern in the respiratory tract. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease with viruses containing or lacking a key mouse-adapting mutation in the spike gene in hACE2 KI mice, which express hACE2 under an endogenous promoter in place of murine ACE2. While infection of hACE2 KI mice with multiple strains of SARS-CoV-2 including variants of concern resulted in viral replication within the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the animals did not sustain severe lung injury. Thus, hACE2 KI mice serve as a model of mild infection with both ancestral and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load , Virus Replication
4.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750513

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Accordingly, an effective vaccine is of critical importance in mitigating coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) and curtailing the pandemic. We developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine by introducing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high titers of antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing human ACE2 and immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung indicating protection against pneumonia. Finally, passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals protects naïve mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750512

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has spread worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although animal models have been evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection, none have recapitulated the severe lung disease phenotypes seen in hospitalized human cases. Here, we evaluate heterozygous transgenic mice expressing the human ACE2 receptor driven by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lung tissues with additional spread to other organs. Remarkably, a decline in pulmonary function, as measured by static and dynamic tests of respiratory capacity, occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with an inflammatory response marked by infiltration into the lung of monocytes, neutrophils, and activated T cells resulting in pneumonia. Cytokine profiling and RNA sequencing analysis of SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with prominent signatures of NF-kB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection recapitulates many features of severe COVID-19 infection in humans and can be used to define the mechanistic basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.

7.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109400, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283974

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a global priority. Here, we compare the protective capacity of intranasal and intramuscular delivery of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding a prefusion stabilized spike protein (chimpanzee adenovirus [ChAd]-SARS-CoV-2-S) in Golden Syrian hamsters. Although immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces robust spike-protein-specific antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus, antibody levels in serum are higher in hamsters vaccinated by an intranasal compared to intramuscular route. Accordingly, against challenge with SARS-CoV-2, ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S-immunized hamsters are protected against less weight loss and have reduced viral infection in nasal swabs and lungs, and reduced pathology and inflammatory gene expression in the lungs, compared to ChAd-control immunized hamsters. Intranasal immunization with ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S provides superior protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and inflammation in the upper respiratory tract. These findings support intranasal administration of the ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S candidate vaccine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease, and possibly transmission.

8.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1327-1335, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728991

ABSTRACT

Although animal models have been evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, none have fully recapitulated the lung disease phenotypes seen in humans who have been hospitalized. Here, we evaluate transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor driven by the cytokeratin-18 (K18) gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lungs, with spread to other organs. A decline in pulmonary function occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with infiltration of monocytes, neutrophils and activated T cells. SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with signatures of nuclear factor-κB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection shares many features of severe COVID-19 infection and can be used to define the basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Keratin-18/genetics , Leukocytes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes/immunology , NF-kappa B/immunology , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
9.
Cell ; 183(1): 169-184.e13, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720448

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has made deployment of an effective vaccine a global health priority. We evaluated the protective activity of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding a prefusion stabilized spike protein (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in challenge studies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Intramuscular dosing of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces robust systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protects against lung infection, inflammation, and pathology but does not confer sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by detection of viral RNA and induction of anti-nucleoprotein antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In contrast, a single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies, promotes systemic and mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and T cell responses, and almost entirely prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Intranasal administration of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S is a candidate for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission and curtailing pandemic spread.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(3): 465-474.e4, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710174

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections, and an effective vaccine is critical to mitigate coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). Previously, we developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Here, we show that vaccination with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 generates neutralizing immune responses and protects mice from SARS-CoV-2. Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high antibody titers that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice that expressed human ACE2 and were immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung, indicating protection against pneumonia. Passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals also protects naive mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Genetic Vectors , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Translational Research, Biomedical , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
11.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665969

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has spread worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although animal models have been evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection, none have recapitulated the severe lung disease phenotypes seen in hospitalized human cases. Here, we evaluate heterozygous transgenic mice expressing the human ACE2 receptor driven by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lung tissues with additional spread to other organs. Remarkably, a decline in pulmonary function, as measured by static and dynamic tests of respiratory capacity, occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with an inflammatory response marked by infiltration into the lung of monocytes, neutrophils, and activated T cells resulting in pneumonia. Cytokine profiling and RNA sequencing analysis of SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with prominent signatures of NF-kB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection recapitulates many features of severe COVID-19 infection in humans and can be used to define the mechanistic basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.

12.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663086

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Accordingly, an effective vaccine is of critical importance in mitigating coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) and curtailing the pandemic. We developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine by introducing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high titers of antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing human ACE2 and immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung indicating protection against pneumonia. Finally, passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals protects naïve mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Nature ; 584(7821): 443-449, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647154

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health1 and the medical countermeasures available so far are limited2,3. Moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-24. Here we analyse a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies that target the spike (S) glycoprotein5, and identify several that exhibit potent neutralizing activity and fully block the receptor-binding domain of the S protein (SRBD) from interacting with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Using competition-binding, structural and functional studies, we show that the monoclonal antibodies can be clustered into classes that recognize distinct epitopes on the SRBD, as well as distinct conformational states of the S trimer. Two potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, COV2-2196 and COV2-2130, which recognize non-overlapping sites, bound simultaneously to the S protein and neutralized wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus in a synergistic manner. In two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, passive transfer of COV2-2196, COV2-2130 or a combination of both of these antibodies protected mice from weight loss and reduced the viral burden and levels of inflammation in the lungs. In addition, passive transfer of either of two of the most potent ACE2-blocking monoclonal antibodies (COV2-2196 or COV2-2381) as monotherapy protected rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results identify protective epitopes on the SRBD and provide a structure-based framework for rational vaccine design and the selection of robust immunotherapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cross Reactions , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Cell ; 182(3): 744-753.e4, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592074

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of human infections. One limitation to the evaluation of potential therapies and vaccines to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and ameliorate disease is the lack of susceptible small animals in large numbers. Commercially available laboratory strains of mice are not readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 because of species-specific differences in their angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Here, we transduced replication-defective adenoviruses encoding human ACE2 via intranasal administration into BALB/c mice and established receptor expression in lung tissues. hACE2-transduced mice were productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, and this resulted in high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss. Passive transfer of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced viral burden in the lung and mitigated inflammation and weight loss. The development of an accessible mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis will expedite the testing and deployment of therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transduction, Genetic , Vero Cells , Viral Load/immunology
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