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Front Psychiatry ; 13: 948036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022911


Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in mental health issues, mainly depression and anxiety, prompted by stressors such as the need to maintain social distance, adapting to quarantine, and lockdown policies. Resilience may be vital in protecting individuals from mental disorders. However, few studies have examined the longitudinal relationships between resilience and mental disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety) among adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between resilience, depression, and anxiety among Chinese adolescents before and during COVID-19 using a longitudinal cross-lagged model. Methods: A total of 7,958 Chinese adolescents completed a baseline survey in the month before COVID-19 and were followed up after the COVID-19 lockdown. Structural equation modeling analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between resilience, depression, and anxiety after controlling for three covariates (i.e., gender, age, and COVID-19 effect). Results: A higher level of resilience before COVID-19 significantly predicted decreased severity of depression and anxiety after the lockdown. Moreover, the mean level of resilience and prevalence of mental disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety) among Chinese adolescents decreased after the lockdown. These findings suggest resilience is a vital protective factor against depression and anxiety among adolescents. Furthermore, younger participants and those less affected by the pandemic could be more resilient. No significant link was found between gender and resilience in the second wave. Conclusions: Resilience is an essential protective factor for reducing mental disorders among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19. Resilience-related interventions should be developed to efficiently promote mental health recovery among youth during pandemics.

J Affect Disord ; 309: 193-200, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804390


BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may mediate the association between family functioning and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mediation effects of depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and COVID-related PTSS on the relationship between family functioning and NSSI in adolescents. METHOD: A sample of 5854 adolescents was recruited from June 16 to July 8, 2020. The data for family functioning, depressive symptoms, emotional competence, COVID-related PTSS, and NSSI behavior of adolescents were collected via self-reported questionnaires. A structural equation model was constructed to examine the relationship, and a bootstrap analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediation effects. RESULTS: The reporting rate of adolescent NSSI was 30.2%. The poor family functioning was positively associated with adolescent NSSI (ß = 0.130, 95% CI = 0.093-0.182), which was mediated by depression with effect size of 0.231 (95% CI = 0.201-0.257). The pathway coefficients between emotional competence and NSSI, and depression, COVID-related PTSS and NSSI, though statistically significant were unlikely to be clinically meaning with values of 0.057 and 0.015. There was no mediating effect by COVID-related PTSS. The pathways initially constructed between family functioning and COVID-related PTSS, emotional capacity and COVID-related PTSS were not been verified. LIMITATIONS: It was unclear whether this mediational effect would be supported in a longitudinal design. The application and extension of this model toward other regions and countries, and different ages need to be further explored. CONCLUSION: The interventions of adolescent NSSI should focus on both the family level and individual levels. Improving family environment, screening depressive symptoms, enhancing emotional competence and lessening COVID-related PTSS may reduce NSSI.

COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Emotions , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology