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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307723

ABSTRACT

Background: The effective treatment of COVID-19 remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence for such treatment is still lacking.Methods: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by propensity score-matched (PSM) and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis.Results: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 79 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10 and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.28 (95%CI 0.06-1.10, p=0.061) in propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis, and 0.24 (95%CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) adjustment. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg.Conclusions: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: All authors declared no competing financial interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics board of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH, No. ZS-2299, Feb 6, 2020), and all participants provided written consent for participating this study.

3.
World J Emerg Med ; 12(4): 287-292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and influenza A (H1N1), and to develop a differentiating model and a simple scoring system. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data from patients with COVID-19 and H1N1. The logistic regression model based on clinical and laboratory characteristics was constructed to distinguish COVID-19 from H1N1. Scores were assigned to each of independent discrimination factors based on their odds ratios. The performance of the prediction model and scoring system was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 236 patients were recruited, including 20 COVID-19 patients and 216 H1N1 patients. Logistic regression revealed that age >34 years, temperature ≤37.5 °C, no sputum or myalgia, lymphocyte ratio ≥20% and creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (CK-MB) >9.7 U/L were independent differentiating factors for COVID-19. The area under curves (AUCs) of the prediction model and scoring system in differentiating COVID-19 from H1N1 were 0.988 and 0.962, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are certain differences in clinical and laboratory features between patients with COVID-19 and H1N1. The simple scoring system may be a useful tool for the early identification of COVID-19 patients from H1N1 patients.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627844, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. We reported successful use of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in cases of severe COVID-19, but evidence from larger case series is still lacking. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIg administered within two weeks of disease onset at a total dose of 2 g/kg body weight, in addition to standard care. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Efficacy of high-dose IVIg was assessed by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Kaplan-Meier curve adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, and IPTW after multiple imputation (MI) analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 26 patients who received high-dose IVIg with standard therapy and 89 patients who received standard therapy only were enrolled in this study. The IVIg group was associated with a lower 28-day mortality rate and less time to normalization of inflammatory markers including IL-6, IL-10, and ferritin compared with the control. The adjusted HR of 28-day mortality in high-dose IVIg group was 0.24 (95% CI 0.06-0.99, p<0.001) in IPTW model, and 0.27 (95% CI 0.10-0.57, p=0.031) in IPTW-MI model. In subgroup analysis, patients with no comorbidities or treated in the first week of disease were associated with more benefit from high-dose IVIg. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose IVIg administered in severe COVID-19 patients within 14 days of onset was linked to reduced 28-day mortality, more prominent with those having no comorbidities or treated at earlier stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , China/epidemiology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
Clinics ; 76: e2604, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1234900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has catastrophically threatened public health worldwide and presented great challenges for clinicians. To date, no specific drugs are available against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear to be a promising cell therapy owing to their potent modulatory effects on reducing and healing inflammation-induced lung and other tissue injuries. The present pilot study aimed to explore the therapeutic potential and safety of MSCs isolated from healthy cord tissues in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Twelve patients with COVID-19 treated with MSCs plus conventional therapy and 13 treated with conventional therapy alone (control) were included. The efficacy of MSC infusion was evaluated by changes in oxygenation index, clinical chemistry and hematology tests, immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, and pulmonary computerized tomography (CT) imaging. The safety of MSC infusion was evaluated based on the occurrence of allergic reactions and serious adverse events. RESULTS: The MSC-treated group demonstrated significantly improved oxygenation index. The area of pulmonary inflammation decreased significantly, and the CT number in the inflammatory area tended to be restored. Decreased IgM levels were also observed after MSC therapy. Laboratory biomarker levels at baseline and after therapy showed no significant changes in either the MSC-treated or control group. CONCLUSION: Intravenous infusion of MSCs in patients with COVID-19 was effective and well tolerated. Further studies involving a large cohort or randomized controlled trials are warranted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Umbilical Cord , Pilot Projects , Betacoronavirus
6.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 768-775, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217479

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma therapy has been implemented in a few cases of severe coronavirus disease 2019. No report about convalescent plasma therapy in treating patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been published. In this study, we conducted a retrospective observational study in 27 patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the clinical benefit of convalescent plasma therapy were analyzed. qRT-PCR test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative (≤ 7 days) in a part of patients (early negative group, n = 15) after therapy, others (late negative group, n = 12) turned negative in more than 7 days. Pulmonary imaging improvement was confirmed in 7 patients in early negative group and 8 in late negative group after CP therapy. Viral load decreased in early negative group compared with late negative group at day 3, 5, 7 after implementing convalescent plasma therapy. Patients in early negative group had a shorter median length of hospital stay. In conclusion, convalescent plasma therapy might help eliminate virus and shorten length of hospital stay in patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 671443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172967

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.627844/full.].

8.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(3): 197-209, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145182

ABSTRACT

Although millions of patients have clinically recovered from COVID-19, little is known about the immune status of lymphocytes in these individuals. In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a clinically recovered (CR) cohort were comparatively analyzed with those of an age- and sex-matched healthy donor cohort. We found that CD8+ T cells in the CR cohort had higher numbers of effector T cells and effector memory T cells but lower Tc1 (IFN-γ+), Tc2 (IL-4+), and Tc17 (IL-17A+) cell frequencies. The CD4+ T cells of the CR cohort were decreased in frequency, especially the central memory T cell subset. Moreover, CD4+ T cells in the CR cohort showed lower programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression and had lower frequencies of Th1 (IFN-γ+), Th2 (IL-4+), Th17 (IL-17A+), and circulating follicular helper T (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. Accordingly, the proportion of isotype-switched memory B cells (IgM-CD20hi) among B cells in the CR cohort showed a significantly lower proportion, although the level of the activation marker CD71 was elevated. For CD3-HLA-DR- lymphocytes in the CR cohort, in addition to lower levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and T-bet, the correlation between T-bet and IFN-γ was not observed. Additionally, by taking into account the number of days after discharge, all the phenotypes associated with reduced function did not show a tendency toward recovery within 4‒11 weeks. The remarkable phenotypic alterations in lymphocytes in the CR cohort suggest that  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection profoundly affects lymphocytes and potentially results in dysfunction even after clinical recovery.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage/genetics , Cell Lineage/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Granzymes/genetics , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/virology
9.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(3): e1259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. The existence of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 positivity (PP) has further increased the burden on the health system. Since T cells are vital for viral control, we aimed to evaluate the characteristics of T-cell responses associated with PP. METHODS: We established a PP cohort and two age- and sex-matched control cohorts: a regular clinical recovery (CR) cohort and a healthy donor (HD) cohort. The mean time for RNA negativity conversion in the PP cohort was markedly longer than that in the CR cohort (66.2 vs 25.3 days), while the time from illness onset to sampling was not significantly different. T-cell responses in the PP cohort were assayed, analysed and compared with those in the CR and HD cohorts by flow cytometry and ELISpot analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: Compared with the CR cohort, the proliferation, activation and functional potential of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the PP cohort were not significantly different. However, the frequencies and counts of Teff and Tem in CD8+ but not in CD4+ T cells of the PP cohort were prominently lower. Moreover, a weaker SARS-CoV-2 N protein-specific IFN-γ+ T-cell response and a higher frequency of Tregs were detected in the PP cohort. CONCLUSION: Suppressed CD8+ T-cell differentiation is associated with PP and may be an indicator for the prediction of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 positivity in COVID-19 patients. The association between suppressed CD8+ T-cell differentiation and elevated Tregs warrants studies in the future.

10.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 859-868, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070952

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 infection, is a global health crisis. While many patients have clinically recovered, little is known about long-term alterations in T cell responses of COVID-19 convalescents. In this study, T cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a long-time COVID-19 clinically recovered (20-26 weeks) cohort (LCR) were measured via flow cytometry and ELISpot. The T cell responses of LCR were comparatively analyzed against an age and sex matched short-time clinically recovered (4-9 weeks) cohort (SCR) and a healthy donor cohort (HD). All volunteers were recruited from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, China. Phenotypic analysis showed that activation marker PD-1 expressing on CD4+ T cells of LCR was still significantly lower than that of HD. Functional analysis indicated that frequencies of Tc2, Th2 and Th17 in LCR were comparable to those of HD, but Tc17 was higher than that of HD. In LCR, compared to the HD, there were fewer IFN-γ producing T cells but more IL-2 secreting T cells. In addition, the circulating Tfh cells in LCR were still slightly lower compared to HD, though the subsets composition had recovered. Remarkably, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses in LCR were comparable to that of SCR. Collectively, T cell responses experienced long-term alterations in phenotype and functional potential of LCR cohort. However, after clinical recovery, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses could be sustained at least for six months, which may be helpful in resisting re-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Pandemics , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 277: 113888, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056890

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has formed a global pandemic since late 2019. Benefitting from the application experience of Chinese Medicine (CM) for influenza and SARS, CM has been used to save patients at the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CM, and compare with Western Medicine (WM) for COVID-19, we conducted a retrospective case series study based on the patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. METHODS: The inclusion and exclusion criteria of data extraction were set for this retrospective study. All patients who were admitted by the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital between January 17th and February 25th 2020 were considered. In addition, patients enrolled met the severe defined by the guidelines released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. In these cases included in the study, CM or WM treatment was selected according to the wishes of the patients at the beginning of hospitalization. The patients in CM group were treated with Huashi Baidu granule (137 g po, bid) combined with the injections of Xiyanping (100 mg iv, bid), Xuebijing (100 ml iv, bid) and Shenmai (60 ml iv, qd) according to the syndrome of epidemic toxin blocking the lung in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The WM group received antiviral therapy (including abidor capsule 0.2 g po, tid; Lopinavir-Ritonavir tablets, 500 mg po, bid), antibiotics (such as cefoperazone 2 g iv, bid; moxifloxacin hydrochloride tablets, 0.4 g po, qd) or corticosteroid therapy (such as methylprednisolone succinate sodium 40 mg iv, qd; prednisone, 30 mg po, qd). In addition, patients in both groups received routine supportive treatment, including oxygen inhalation, symptomatic therapy, and/or human intravenous immunoglobulin, and/or serum albumin, and treatment for underlying diseases. The clinical outcomes were evaluated based on changes related with clinical manifestations, computer tomography (CT) scan images, and laboratory examinations before and after the treatment. RESULTS: 55 severe COVID-19 patients, with 23 in CM group and 32 in WM group, were included for analyzed. There was no case of death, being transferred to ICU, or receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in two groups during hospitalization. The median time of SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in CM and WM group were 12 days and 15.5 days respectively, the ratio of nucleic acid negative conversion of CM group at different follow-up time points was significantly higher than that of WM group (HR: 2.281, P = 0.018). Further, the chest CT imaging showed more widely lung lesion opacity absorbed in the CM group. The high sensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin decreased significantly in the CM group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse events in terms of liver function and renal function between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Based on this retrospective analysis from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, CM has better effects in SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, promoting lung lesion opacity absorbed and reducing inflammation in severe COVID-19 patients, which is effective and safe therapy for treating severe COVID-19 and reducing mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/adverse effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2315-2321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799338

ABSTRACT

Prolonged presence of viral nucleic acid was reported in certain patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with unclear clinical and epidemiological significance. We here described the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 37 recovered COVID-19 patients with prolonged presence of viral RNA in Wuhan, China. For those who had been discharged and re-admitted, their close contacts outside the hospital were traced and evaluated. The median age of the 37 patients was 62 years (IQR 50, 68), and 24 (64.9%) were men. They had common or severe COVID-19. With prolonged positive RT-PCR, most patients were clinically stable, 29 (78.4%) denied any symptoms. A total of 431 PCR tests were carried out, with each patient at a median of 8 time points. The median time of PCR positivity to April 18 was 78 days (IQR 67.7, 84.5), and the longest 120 days. 22 of 37 patients had been discharged at a median of 44 days (IQR 22.3, 50) from disease onset, and 9 had lived with their families without personal protections for a total of 258 person-days and no secondary infection was identified through epidemiological investigation, nucleic acid and antibody screening. Infectiousness in COVID-19 patients with prolonged presence of viral nucleic acid should not solely be evaluated by RT-PCR. Those patients who have clinically recovered and whose disease course has exceeded four weeks were associated with very limited infectiousness. Reconsideration of disease control in such patients is needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-262188

ABSTRACT

Without approved vaccines and specific treatment, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading around the world with above 20 million COVID-19 cases and approximately 700 thousand deaths until now. An efficacious and affordable vaccine is urgently needed. The Val308 - Gly548 of Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 linked with Gln830 - Glu843 of Tetanus toxoid (TT peptide) (designated as S1-4) and without TT peptide (designated as S1-5), and prokaryotic expression, chromatography purification and the rational renaturation of the protein were performed. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of S1-4 protein was evaluated by Western Blotting (WB) in vitro and immune responses in mice, respectively. The protective efficiency of it was measured by virus neutralization test in Vero E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2. S1-4 protein was prepared to high homogeneity and purity by prokaryotic expression and chromatography purification. Adjuvanted with Alum, S1-4 protein stimulated a strong antibody response in immunized mice and caused a major Th2-type cellular immunity compared with S1-5 protein. Furthermore, the immunized sera could protect the Vero E6 cells from SARS-CoV-2 infection with neutralization antibody GMT 256. The candidate subunit vaccine molecule could stimulate strong humoral and Th1 and Th2-type cellular immune response in mice, giving us solid evidence that S1-4 protein could be a promising subunit vaccine candidate.

15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(3): ofaa102, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42928

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly in China. Until now, no definite effective treatment has been identified. We reported on 3 patients with severe COVID-19 who received high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) with satisfactory recovery. Based on these observations, randomized studies of high-dose IVIg should be considered in deteriorating patients infected with COVID-19.

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