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1.
Journal of Organizational and End User Computing ; 34(6), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2316798

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, the governments of different countries adopted restrictions, such as locking down cities and restricting travel and social contact. Online health communities (OHCs) with specialized physicians have become an important way for the elderly to access health information and social support, which has expanded their use since the outbreak. This paper examines the factors influencing elderly people's behavior in terms of the continuous use of OHCs from a social support perspective to understand the impact of public health emergencies. Research collected data from March to April 2019, February 2020, and August 2021 in China. A total of 189 samples were collected and analyzed by using SmartPLS. The results show that (1) social support to the elderly during different stages has different influences on their sense of community and (2) the influence of the sense of community on the intention to continuously use OHCs also seems to change over time. The results of this study provide important implications for research and practice related to both OHCs and COVID-19. © 2022 IGI Global. All rights reserved.

2.
12th International Conference on Information Technology in Medicine and Education, ITME 2022 ; : 121-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2313723

ABSTRACT

To deal with the COVID-19 pandemic, schools at all levels insist on "classes suspended but learning continues"and actively implement online teaching. Different from the planned shift from offline to online education, COVID-19 caused online teaching to be highly sudden and emergent, producing different learning outcomes from offline teaching. Therefore, it is critical to analyze the epidemic's impact on students' learning outcomes. However, prior studies only focus on statistical data of the learning process, such as students' test scores or homework completion, rather than comments posted on social media. This paper explores the impact of COVID-19 on students' online exams by identifying potential topics during the final exam period. We first collect and preprocess a huge number of Weibo posts with natural language processing methods. Then, we explore related topics via LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation) model. Finally, the extensive experimental results demonstrate that our findings for the 16 topic groups have significant roles in exploring students' attitudes towards online exams and exam cheating. Furthermore, we found that the overall affective attitudes of users' postings tended to be negative. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Malaysian Construction Research Journal ; 17(3 Special issue):209-227, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2289219

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected employees across Malaysia to work remotely and in isolation. This crisis has particularly affected employee motivation, which is an important factor in maintaining work performance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of employee motivation in the remote working environment in the construction industry during the pandemic crisis, identify the effects of task-oriented and relation-oriented leadership behaviour in motivating employees during the pandemic crisis and determine the moderating role of digital readiness for the relationship between leadership behaviour and employee motivation. A questionnaire survey to 185 respondents was utilised in the data collection exercise. Various statistical analyses were done by using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software. The findings indicated that task-oriented and relation-oriented leadership behaviour was acquired to maintain employee motivation in a remote working environment during crises. Furthermore, the study confirmed that relation-oriented leadership behaviour influenced employee motivation more than task-oriented behaviour. The employee digital readiness was found to have an insignificant moderating effect between leadership behaviour and employee motivation. The study would contribute to the body of knowledge as there is limited literature on leadership and virtual work regarding leadership behaviour effectiveness and its impact on employee motivation during a pandemic. © 2022, Construction Research Institute of Malaysia. All rights reserved.

4.
East Asian Science, Technology and Society ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2254627

ABSTRACT

A number of medical experts have become famous overnight in China since the outbreak of COVID-19. This research investigates four representative Chinese scientists by employing search analytics of the Baidu index (from December 2019 to May 2020) and content analysis of answers and commentaries on the Zhihu website (from January 2020 to May 2020). We find that the four scientists present different images and spark unprecedented publicity. In particular, the key to the transformation from scientists into public intellectuals is to demonstrate moral responsibility in public images, or to realize humorous and effective communication with the public. The birth of celebrity scientists has not only reshaped the public's traditional perception of scientists but also played a crucial role in the governance of pandemic risks by guiding the public's behavior and offering scientific ways to cope with risks. © 2023 National Science and Technology Council, Taiwan.

5.
Circulation Conference: American Heart Association's ; 146(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194339

ABSTRACT

Aim of the study: Effective CPR training is important for provision of high-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the COVID-19 pandemic has hindered conventional face-to-face CPR training. To overcome the limitation, we developed a distance learning CPR training course (HEROS-Remote) that utilized a smartphone app and a delivery-collection system for CPR training manikins. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the HEROSRemote course by comparing chest compression quality between trainees who participated in the conventional CPR training (C-training) and HEROS-Remote course (R-training). Method(s): The non-inferiority trial included adult nonhealthcare providers who applied for CPR training. Both groups underwent 2-minute post-training chest compression test followed by course survey on trainees' course and delivery system satisfaction. The primary outcome of the study was mean chest compression depth during the 2-minute post-training test. Result(s): A total of 180 trainees were enrolled with 90 trainees for each training group. There was no statistically significant difference in chest compression depth between R-training and C-training groups (67.4 vs. 67.8, p=0.78) as well as proportion of adequate chest compression depth, chest compression rate, proportion of chest compressions with complete chest recoil and chest compression score (90.8 vs. 92.1, p=0.69;110.8 vs. 110.4, p=0.60;89.8 vs. 94.7, p=0.05;92.7 vs. 95.5, p=0.16, respectively). In the R-training group, 90.0% of the trainees were satisfied with the course, 96% responded that the delivery system was satisfactory and convenient. Conclusion(s): The R-training course was noninferior to the C-training course. The distance learning CPR training method utilizing smartphone app and mannikin delivery-collection system had high user satisfaction and was logistically feasible.

6.
Education in Medicine Journal ; 14(3):109-122, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2111311

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic had forced medical students to study at home, transitioning to an emergency remote learning mode of instruction. Its impact on students was unknown and likely to be of concern. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive, emotional and behavioural engagements of medical students during emergency remote learning, and examined its associations with regard to their age, gender, stages of study and ethnic groups. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate medical students at one public medical school in Malaysia. Emergency remote learning was conducted via Microsoft Teams (synchronous) and web resources (asynchronous). The questionnaire consisted of four sections: demographic background, emotional, behavioural, and cognitive engagements with emergency remote learning. Three hundred twenty-nine students (n = 329) completed the questionnaire. The three engagement dimension scores were 3.36/4.00 (behaviour - act), 3.16 (cognition - think) and 3.07 (emotion - feel), respectively. There was a significant difference between the engagement dimension scores (paired data), implying that what students feel, think and act on emergency remote learning did not seem to align. Next, engagements of these students were not significantly associated with their age, stages of study, and ethnic groups, but male students had higher dimension mean scores for cognitive and emotional engagements. Emergency remote learning had a considerable impact on student engagements. The study calls for continuing efforts in improving effectiveness and equity in learning engagements among medical students in the post-pandemic era. © Malaysian Association of Education in Medicine and Health Sciences and Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. 2022

7.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 52:416-427, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069329

ABSTRACT

Recent studies on the pandemic have focused on the DOs and DON'Ts of recovery remedies, but few have investigated the pandemic-spawned fundamental internal problems of the enterprises in order to diminish the impacts of the mega-crisis and relieve the need for recovery efforts. It is incontestable that employees are one of the major victims of the pandemic crisis;their negative emotions caused by the increasing career and financial instability have heightened the challenges of their enterprises that are striking for survival. This research has identified a breakthrough that extends the effect of CSR efforts from the traditional societal focus to internal employees, to whom CSR is found to mediate the undesirable escape habits and anti-crisis behaviours resulted from crises. This strengthens the understanding and value of CSR, while presents management with a novel mixed strategy to stabilize employee emotions and assemble their competence to get through a crisis.

8.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 15(5):213-219, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1896976

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the degree of knowledge in the usage of pulse oximeter as a home assessment tool among the community in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2021. The questionnaire assessed the knowledge in using pulse oximeters, user experience and opinions in using pulse oximeter as a home assessment tool during the pandemic. Results: A total of 504 respondents were included in the study, and the mean score in knowledge related to application of pulse oximetry was 73.00%, while the mean score in knowledge related to factors affecting pulse oximetry readings was only 38.51%. A total of 90.5% of the respondents recognised normal pulse rate and 88.5% knew the blood oxygen saturation levels of a healthy adult, while 69.4% recognised the definition of silent hypoxia. In addition, the majority of the respondents agreed that factors such as poor blood circulation (71.2%), excessive movements (69.8%), and hand position (60.7%) affected oximetry readings. However, 61.7%, 81.7%, 77.2% and 76.8% of the respondents could not identify nail polish, skin colour, skin thickness and tattoos as factors that may affect oximetry readings respectively. Conclusions: The respondents showed a satisfactory level of knowledge related to application of pulse oximetry, but a poor level of knowledge related to factors affecting pulse oximetry readings among the community in Malaysia. Continuous efforts in educating the community on the correct use of pulse oximeters are crucial for appropriate home assessment and avoiding unnecessary stress.

9.
Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators ; 159:10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1683541

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is an essential protective response against harmful stimuli, such as invading pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Physiological inflammation eliminates pathogens and promotes tissue repair and healing. Effective immune response in humans depends on a tightly regulated balance among inflammatory and antiinflammatory mechanisms involving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Excessive inflammation can become pathological and induce detrimental effects. If this process is not self-limited, an inappropriate remodeling of the tissues and organs can occur and lead to the onset of chronic degenerative diseases. A wide spectrum of infectious and non-infectious agents may activate the inflammation, via the release of mediators and cytokines by distinct subtypes of lymphocytes and macrophages. Several molecular mechanisms regulate the onset, progression, and resolution of inflammation. All these steps, even the termination of this process, are active and not passive events. In particular, a complex interplay exists between mediators (belonging to the group of Eicosanoids), which induce the beginning of inflammation, such as Prostaglandins (PGE2), Leukotrienes (LT), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2), and molecules which display a key role in counteracting this process and in promoting its proper resolution. The latter group of mediators includes: o)-6 arachidonic acid (AA)-derived metabolites, such as Lipoxins (LXs), o) -3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-derived mediators, such as Eseries Resolvins (RvEs), and o) -3 docosahexaenoic (DHA)-derived mediators, such as D-series Resolvins (RvDs), Protectins (PDs) and Maresins (MaRs). Overall, these mediators are defined as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Reduced synthesis of these molecules may lead to uncontrolled inflammation with possible harmful effects. o)-3 fatty acids are widely used in clinical practice as rather inexpensive, safe, readily available supplemental therapy. Taking advantage of this evidence, several researchers are suggesting that SPMs may have beneficial effects in the complementary treatment of patients with severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 related infection, to counteract the "cytokine storm" observed in these individuals. Well-designed and sized trials in patients suffering from COVID-19 with different degrees of severity are needed to investigate the real impact in the clinical practice of this promising therapeutic approach.

10.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 46(7):710-717, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1377126

ABSTRACT

[Abstract] The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. The pathogen responsible for this disease is a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It belongs to coronavirus family, a pathogen similar to SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and manifests strong infectivity and pathogenicity to progress into severe pneumonia. Till now, there is no specific therapeutic drug targeting against this virus. With the rapid spread and deterioration of the epidemic situation, vaccination has become an urgent need. This review introduces the immune defense mechanism of human body against coronavirus briefly, set forth the key viral spike protein for coronavirus vaccine development, and then summarize the recent advances/progresses and potential challenges in safety and efficacy of vaccine development for SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology ; 50(3):195-202, 2020.
Article in Korean | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1227125

ABSTRACT

As of September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 30 million people worldwide, and the death toll has now risen to 950,000. Given that Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) had consistently been showing the virucidal efficacy against various types of viruses, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and Ebola, we conducted this study to figure out the virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2 by using a viral plaque assay. We performed Kill-Time assays to assess the viral inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 contaminants after the application of the PVP-I product (Betadine® Throat Spray, PVP-I 0.45%). This test consisted of clean and dirty conditions and was designed to check the viral titers at a contact time of 60 seconds, which were evaluated by plaque-reduction rates in Vero cells. This PVP-I product fully achieved ≥4 log10 reductions in viral titers under both clean and dirty conditions. This level of reduction, ≥4 log10 (99.99%), in viral titers presented to be effective in terms of virucidal efficacy, according to the European standards, EN14476. This study revealed the virucidal efficacy of Betadine® Throat Spray against SARS-CoV-2 virus. Given that the convenience and availability of this product, we think that it may contribute to inhibit viral infection and transmissibility as an active type of personal protective equipment (PPE) by managing the hygiene of patients and medical professionals.

12.
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army ; 45(10):1003-1029, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-972626

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)";now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis [including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents], diagnosis [including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest X-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections], treatments [including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, Qingfei Paidu decoction, Lianhua Qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)], and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. © 2020 People's Military Medical Press. All rights reserved.

13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(4): 2078-2088, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a global pandemic and urgent treatment and prevention strategies are needed. Nitazoxanide, an anthelmintic drug, has been shown to exhibit in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2. The present study used physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to inform optimal doses of nitazoxanide capable of maintaining plasma and lung tizoxanide exposures above the reported SARS-CoV-2 EC90 . METHODS: A whole-body PBPK model was validated against available pharmacokinetic data for healthy individuals receiving single and multiple doses between 500 and 4000 mg with and without food. The validated model was used to predict doses expected to maintain tizoxanide plasma and lung concentrations above the EC90 in >90% of the simulated population. PopDes was used to estimate an optimal sparse sampling strategy for future clinical trials. RESULTS: The PBPK model was successfully validated against the reported human pharmacokinetics. The model predicted optimal doses of 1200 mg QID, 1600 mg TID and 2900 mg BID in the fasted state and 700 mg QID, 900 mg TID and 1400 mg BID when given with food. For BID regimens an optimal sparse sampling strategy of 0.25, 1, 3 and 12 hours post dose was estimated. CONCLUSION: The PBPK model predicted tizoxanide concentrations within doses of nitazoxanide already given to humans previously. The reported dosing strategies provide a rational basis for design of clinical trials with nitazoxanide for the treatment or prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A concordant higher dose of nitazoxanide is now planned for investigation in the seamless phase I/IIa AGILE trial.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Repositioning , Models, Biological , Nitro Compounds/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Adult , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/blood , Computer Simulation , Drug Dosage Calculations , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nitro Compounds/blood , Nitro Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Reproducibility of Results , Thiazoles/blood , Thiazoles/pharmacokinetics , Tissue Distribution , Young Adult
14.
Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University ; 41(6):612-615, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-743071

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine sulfate combined with azithromycin in the treatment of refractory common coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods The clinical data of 11 refractory common COVID-19 patients, who were admitted to Guanggu Branch of Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital of Hubei Province from Mar. 22 to 25, 2020, were retrospectively collected. The patients all received combined treatment regimens: hydroxychloroquine sulfate orally 200 mg three times daily for 7 days;and azithromycin orally 500 mg once daily on day 1 and then 250 mg once daily from day 2 to day 4. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test of throat swab was performed once daily from day 4 to day 10 after combined administration, and the blood routine and other laboratory indicators were tested within 3 days before administration and on the 8th days after administration. Results All the 11 patients had common COVID-19, seven of them were consistently positive for SARSCoV- 2 nucleic acid test, and four were positive again after negative results. The average course of disease of 11 patients before combined administration was 50.2 days. The treatment process was uneventful. Zero case of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test result turned negative on day 4 after administration, two cases on day 5, two cases on day 6, two cases on day 7, one case on day 8 and one case on day 9. No patients progressed to severe or critical illness, and no severe side effects were found. Conclusion Hydroxychloroquine sulfate combined with azithromycin is safe and effective in the treatment of refractory common COVID-19 patients who have ailed in other treatments and are consistently positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid.

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