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1.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 167: 92-96, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757945

ABSTRACT

Virus induced endothelial dysregulation is a well-recognised feature of severe Covid-19 infection. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most highly expressed peptide in endothelial cells and a potent vasoconstrictor, thus representing a potential therapeutic target. ET-1 plasma levels were measured in a cohort of 194 Covid-19 patients stratified according to the clinical severity of their illness. Hospitalised patients, including those who died and those developing acute myocardial or kidney injury, had significantly elevated ET-1 plasma levels during the acute phase of infection. The results support the hypothesis that endothelin receptor antagonists may provide clinical benefit for certain Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelin-1 , Endothelial Cells , Endothelin Receptor Antagonists , Humans , Receptor, Endothelin A , Receptors, Endothelin , Vasoconstrictor Agents
2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(20): 2466-2476, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Published data suggest worse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to report the demographics, angiographic findings, and in-hospital outcomes of COVID-19 ACS patients and compare these with pre-COVID-19 cohorts. METHODS: From March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020, data from 55 international centers were entered into a prospective, COVID-ACS Registry. Patients were COVID-19 positive (or had a high index of clinical suspicion) and underwent invasive coronary angiography for suspected ACS. Outcomes were in-hospital major cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, re-myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, unplanned revascularization, or stent thrombosis). Results were compared with national pre-COVID-19 databases (MINAP [Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project] 2019 and BCIS [British Cardiovascular Intervention Society] 2018 to 2019). RESULTS: In 144 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 121 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, symptom-to-admission times were significantly prolonged (COVID-STEMI vs. BCIS: median 339.0 min vs. 173.0 min; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS vs. MINAP: 417.0 min vs. 295.0 min; p = 0.012). Mortality in COVID-ACS patients was significantly higher than BCIS/MINAP control subjects in both subgroups (COVID-STEMI: 22.9% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS: 6.6% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.001), which remained following multivariate propensity analysis adjusting for comorbidities (STEMI subgroup odds ratio: 3.33 [95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 5.42]). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 20.1% of COVID-STEMI patients versus 8.7% of BCIS patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter international registry, COVID-19-positive ACS patients presented later and had increased in-hospital mortality compared with a pre-COVID-19 ACS population. Excessive rates of and mortality from cardiogenic shock were major contributors to the worse outcomes in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , Registries , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Coronary Angiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(2): 305-313, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who would usually have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, cardiac surgery for coronary artery disease (CAD) was dramatically reduced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many patients with "surgical disease" instead underwent PCI. METHODS: Between 1 March 2020 and 31 July 2020, 215 patients with recognized "surgical" CAD who underwent PCI were enrolled in the prospective UK-ReVasc Registry (ReVR). 30-day major cardiovascular event outcomes were collected. Findings in ReVR patients were directly compared to reference PCI and isolated CABG pre-COVID-19 data from British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) and National Cardiac Audit Programme (NCAP) databases. RESULTS: ReVR patients had higher incidence of diabetes (34.4% vs 26.4%, P = .008), multi-vessel disease with left main stem disease (51.4% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and left anterior descending artery involvement (94.8% vs 67.2%, P < .001) compared to BCIS data. SYNTAX Score in ReVR was high (mean 28.0). Increased use of transradial access (93.3% vs 88.6%, P = .03), intracoronary imaging (43.6% vs 14.4%, P < .001) and calcium modification (23.6% vs 3.5%, P < .001) was observed. No difference in in-hospital mortality was demonstrated compared to PCI and CABG data (ReVR 1.4% vs BCIS 0.7%, P = .19; vs NCAP 1.0%, P = .48). Inpatient stay was half compared to CABG (3.0 vs 6.0 days). Low-event rates in ReVR were maintained to 30-day follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: PCI undertaken using contemporary techniques produces excellent short-term results in patients who would be otherwise CABG candidates. Longer-term follow-up is essential to determine whether these outcomes are maintained over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Hirudins , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 4(6): 1-6, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can present with cardiovascular complications. CASE SUMMARY: We present a case report of a 43-year-old previously fit patient who suffered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with thrombosis of the coronary arteries causing acute myocardial infarction. These were treated with coronary stenting during which the patient suffered cardiac arrest. He was supported with automated chest compressions followed by peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO). No immediate recovery of the myocardial function was observed and, after insufficient venting of the left ventricle was diagnosed, an Impella 5 pump was implanted. The cardiovascular function recovered sufficiently and ECMO was explanted and inotropic infusions discontinued. Due to SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection, hypoxia became resistant to conventional mechanical ventilation and the patient was nursed prone overnight. After initial recovery of respiratory function, the patient received a tracheostomy and was allowed to wake up. Following a short period of agitation his neurological function recovered completely. During the third week of recovery, progressive multisystem dysfunction, possibly related to COVID-19, developed into multiorgan failure, and the patient died. DISCUSSION: We believe that this is the first case report of coronary thrombosis related to COVID-19. Despite the negative outcome in this patient, we suggest that complex patients may in the future benefit from advanced cardiovascular support, and may even be nursed safely in the prone position with Impella devices.

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