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1.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(2): 309-326, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873054

ABSTRACT

The authors describe infection prevention and control approaches to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the health care setting, including a review of the chain of transmission and the hierarchy of controls, which are cornerstones of infection control and prevention. The authors also discuss lessons learned from nosocomial transmission events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Infection Control
2.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report follow-up data from an ongoing prospective cohort study of COVID-19 in pediatric kidney transplantation through the Improving Renal Outcomes Collaborative (IROC). METHODS: Patient-level data from the IROC registry were combined with testing, indication, and outcomes data collected to describe the epidemiology of COVID testing, treatment, and clinical outcomes; determine the incidence of a positive COVID-19 test; describe rates of COVID-19 testing; and assess for clinical predictors of a positive COVID-19 test. RESULTS: From September 2020 to February 2021, 21 centers that care for 2690 patients submitted data from 648 COVID-19 tests on 465 patients. Most patients required supportive care only and were treated as outpatients, 16% experienced inpatient care, and 5% experienced intensive care. Allograft complications were rare, with acute kidney injury most common (7%). There was 1 case of respiratory failure and 1 death attributed to COVID-19. Twelve centers that care for 1730 patients submitted complete testing data on 351 patients. The incidence of COVID-19 among patients at these centers was 4%, whereas the incidence among tested patients was 19%. Risk factors to predict a positive COVID-19 test included age > 12 years, symptoms consistent with COVID-19, and close contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increase in testing and positive tests over this study period, the incidence of allograft loss or death related to COVID-19 remained extremely low, with allograft loss or death each occurring in < 1% of COVID-19-positive patients and in less than < 0.1% of all transplant patients within the IROC cohort. A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2248-2256, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation of hospitalized persons under investigation (PUIs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reduces nosocomial transmission risk. Efficient evaluation of PUIs is needed to preserve scarce healthcare resources. We describe the development, implementation, and outcomes of an inpatient diagnostic algorithm and clinical decision support system (CDSS) to evaluate PUIs. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post study of CORAL (COvid Risk cALculator), a CDSS that guides frontline clinicians through a risk-stratified COVID-19 diagnostic workup, removes transmission-based precautions when workup is complete and negative, and triages complex cases to infectious diseases (ID) physician review. Before CORAL, ID physicians reviewed all PUI records to guide workup and precautions. After CORAL, frontline clinicians evaluated PUIs directly using CORAL. We compared pre- and post-CORAL frequency of repeated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), time from NAAT result to PUI status discontinuation, total duration of PUI status, and ID physician work hours, using linear and logistic regression, adjusted for COVID-19 incidence. RESULTS: Fewer PUIs underwent repeated testing after an initial negative NAAT after CORAL than before CORAL (54% vs 67%, respectively; adjusted odd ratio, 0.53 [95% confidence interval, .44-.63]; P < .01). CORAL significantly reduced average time to PUI status discontinuation (adjusted difference [standard error], -7.4 [0.8] hours per patient), total duration of PUI status (-19.5 [1.9] hours per patient), and average ID physician work-hours (-57.4 [2.0] hours per day) (all P < .01). No patients had a positive NAAT result within 7 days after discontinuation of precautions via CORAL. CONCLUSIONS: CORAL is an efficient and effective CDSS to guide frontline clinicians through the diagnostic evaluation of PUIs and safe discontinuation of precautions.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(1): 108-119, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574813

ABSTRACT

The global spread and continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has driven an unprecedented surge in viral genomic surveillance. Amplicon-based sequencing methods provide a sensitive, low-cost and rapid approach but suffer a high potential for contamination, which can undermine laboratory processes and results. This challenge will increase with the expanding global production of sequences across a variety of laboratories for epidemiological and clinical interpretation, as well as for genomic surveillance of emerging diseases in future outbreaks. We present SDSI + AmpSeq, an approach that uses 96 synthetic DNA spike-ins (SDSIs) to track samples and detect inter-sample contamination throughout the sequencing workflow. We apply SDSIs to the ARTIC Consortium's amplicon design, demonstrate their utility and efficiency in a real-time investigation of a suspected hospital cluster of SARS-CoV-2 cases and validate them across 6,676 diagnostic samples at multiple laboratories. We establish that SDSI + AmpSeq provides increased confidence in genomic data by detecting and correcting for relatively common, yet previously unobserved modes of error, including spillover and sample swaps, without impacting genome recovery.


Subject(s)
DNA Primers/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA Primers/chemical synthesis , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Quality Control , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing , Workflow
5.
Science ; 371(6529)2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388436

ABSTRACT

Analysis of 772 complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes from early in the Boston-area epidemic revealed numerous introductions of the virus, a small number of which led to most cases. The data revealed two superspreading events. One, in a skilled nursing facility, led to rapid transmission and significant mortality in this vulnerable population but little broader spread, whereas other introductions into the facility had little effect. The second, at an international business conference, produced sustained community transmission and was exported, resulting in extensive regional, national, and international spread. The two events also differed substantially in the genetic variation they generated, suggesting varying transmission dynamics in superspreading events. Our results show how genomic epidemiology can help to understand the link between individual clusters and wider community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans
6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab257, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266129

ABSTRACT

Among hospitalized persons under investigation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more repeated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) after a negative NAAT were positive from lower than from upper respiratory tract specimens (1.9% vs 1.0%, P = .033). Lower respiratory testing should be prioritized among patients displaying respiratory symptoms with moderate-to-high suspicion for COVID-19 after 1 negative upper respiratory NAAT.

7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(3): 344-347, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131957

ABSTRACT

We describe an approach to the evaluation and isolation of hospitalized persons under investigation (PUIs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at a large US academic medical center. Only a small proportion (2.9%) of PUIs with 1 or more repeated severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) after a negative NAAT were diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Academic Medical Centers , Boston , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Hospitalization , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/organization & administration , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa559, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns about false-negative (FN) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have prompted recommendations for repeat testing if suspicion for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is moderate to high. However, the frequency of FNs and patient characteristics associated with FNs are poorly understood. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed test results from 15 011 adults who underwent ≥1 SARS-CoV-2 NAATs; 2699 had an initial negative NAAT and repeat testing. We defined FNs as ≥1 negative NAATs followed by a positive NAAT within 14 days during the same episode of illness. We stratified subjects with FNs by duration of symptoms before the initial FN test (≤5 days versus >5 days) and examined their clinical, radiologic, and laboratory characteristics. RESULTS: Sixty of 2699 subjects (2.2%) had a FN result during the study period. The weekly frequency of FNs among subjects with repeat testing peaked at 4.4%, coinciding with peak NAAT positivity (38%). Most subjects with FNs had symptoms (52 of 60; 87%) and chest radiography (19 of 32; 59%) consistent with COVID-19. Of the FN NAATs, 18 of 60 (30%) were performed early (ie, ≤1 day of symptom onset), and 18 of 60 (30%) were performed late (ie, >7 days after symptom onset) in disease. Among 17 subjects with 2 consecutive FNs on NP NAATs, 9 (53%) provided lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens for testing, all of which were positive. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support repeated NAATs among symptomatic patients, particularly during periods of higher COVID-19 incidence. The LRT testing should be prioritized to increase yield among patients with high clinical suspicion for COVID-19.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2248-2256, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation of hospitalized persons under investigation (PUIs) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reduces nosocomial transmission risk. Efficient evaluation of PUIs is needed to preserve scarce healthcare resources. We describe the development, implementation, and outcomes of an inpatient diagnostic algorithm and clinical decision support system (CDSS) to evaluate PUIs. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post study of CORAL (COvid Risk cALculator), a CDSS that guides frontline clinicians through a risk-stratified COVID-19 diagnostic workup, removes transmission-based precautions when workup is complete and negative, and triages complex cases to infectious diseases (ID) physician review. Before CORAL, ID physicians reviewed all PUI records to guide workup and precautions. After CORAL, frontline clinicians evaluated PUIs directly using CORAL. We compared pre- and post-CORAL frequency of repeated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), time from NAAT result to PUI status discontinuation, total duration of PUI status, and ID physician work hours, using linear and logistic regression, adjusted for COVID-19 incidence. RESULTS: Fewer PUIs underwent repeated testing after an initial negative NAAT after CORAL than before CORAL (54% vs 67%, respectively; adjusted odd ratio, 0.53 [95% confidence interval, .44-.63]; P < .01). CORAL significantly reduced average time to PUI status discontinuation (adjusted difference [standard error], -7.4 [0.8] hours per patient), total duration of PUI status (-19.5 [1.9] hours per patient), and average ID physician work-hours (-57.4 [2.0] hours per day) (all P < .01). No patients had a positive NAAT result within 7 days after discontinuation of precautions via CORAL. CONCLUSIONS: CORAL is an efficient and effective CDSS to guide frontline clinicians through the diagnostic evaluation of PUIs and safe discontinuation of precautions.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2740-2748, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031014

ABSTRACT

There are limited data on the impact of COVID-19 in children with a kidney transplant (KT). We conducted a prospective cohort study through the Improving Renal Outcomes Collaborative (IROC) to collect clinical outcome data about COVID-19 in pediatric KT patients. Twenty-two IROC centers that care for 2732 patients submitted testing and outcomes data for 281 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. Testing indications included symptoms and/or potential exposures to COVID-19 (N = 134, 47.7%) and/or testing per hospital policy (N = 154, 54.8%). Overall, 24 (8.5%) patients tested positive, of which 15 (63%) were symptomatic. Of the COVID-19-positive patients, 16 were managed as outpatients, six received non-ICU inpatient care and two were admitted to the ICU. There were no episodes of respiratory failure, allograft loss, or death associated with COVID-19. To estimate incidence, subanalysis was performed for 13 centers that care for 1686 patients that submitted all negative and positive COVID-19 results. Of the 229 tested patients at these 13 centers, 10 (5 asymptomatic) patients tested positive, yielding an overall incidence of 0.6% and an incidence among tested patients of 4.4%. Pediatric KT patients in the United States had a low estimated incidence of COVID-19 disease and excellent short-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Child , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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