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EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312517


In a pandemic like Covid-19, there are many countries of lower-earning cannot provide a complete locked-down within the duration of the detected case. The locked-down may result in famine throughout the region of underdeveloped countries after the outbreak. So, a conjectural setup of an epidemic has been studied by applying specific period of locked-down (30 days) in 5 different scenarios. The stochastic approach to the SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered) model has been used to evaluate the dynamics and the effects of locked-down. It is observed that there exist a suitable period to apply locked-down where more susceptible escape from the infection. The effect of the early (as soon as the infected case detected) and late (with respect to the estimated peak of detected cases for no locked-down) implementation of the locked-down has also been studied and found that the late implementation of locked-down will take the least time to end the epidemic. The CFR (Case Fatality Rate) has also been found to be varied from 7.55 to 8.02 for all the considered scenarios.

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):25, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1550689


Purpose Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are an important contributor to emerging countries' economic growth. However, SMEs have been struggling to sustain their performance in a highly competitive environment. Thus, this study aims to re-examine the effect of SMEs' entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firms' performance during the COVID-19. This study has also studied the moderating role of social media usage and the mediating role of marketing capabilities and social media usage. Design/methodology/approach This study used a structured questionnaire for data collection, where the unit of analysis was the manager or owner of SMEs. The data were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling. Findings The findings show that an EO has a significant and positive effect on an SME's performance, but the outcomes are conditional on the role of social media and marketing capabilities. The empirical results reveal that marketing capabilities significantly mediate the relationship between EO and SME performance. In addition, social media usage moderates the relationship between EO and SME performance and it also partially mediates the EO-performance nexus of SMEs. Finally, this study discovers that the EO-Performance nexus of SMEs is serially mediated by social media usage and marketing capabilities. Research limitations/implications This study has important implications for SMEs that are seeking to gain a competitive advantage. For example, an SME should deploy market activities through social media channels. In situations such as a pandemic and uncertainty, this could be the most effective tool. Originality/value This study builds a theory-based mediation-moderation model to explain the link between EO and SME performance. In explaining mediation-moderation effects, the current study provides insight into EO-performance relationships. Moreover, the current model facilitates exploring whether serial mediation passes through social media usage and market capabilities. Therefore, with new findings, the study extends the literature on serial mediation in the EO-performance of SMEs. Additionally, this study extends the literature on the moderating role of social media on SMEs in Indonesia, which has not been investigated. Besides, the current study adds new insight into the EO-performance of SME in COVID-19 condition.

International Journal of Modern Physics C ; 31(10), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-908219


The Susceptible, Infected and Recover (SIR) model is a very simple model to estimate the dynamics of an epidemic. In the current pandemic due to Covid-19, the SIR model has been used to estimate the dynamics of infection for Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and compared with that of China. Numerical solutions are used to obtain the value of parameters for the SIR model. It is predicted that the active case in Pakistan due to the SARS-CoV-2 will be comparable with that in China whereas it will be low for Bangladesh and India. The basic reproduction number, with fluctuations, for South Asian countries are predicted to be less than that of China. The susceptible population is also estimated to be under a million for Bangladesh and India but it becomes very large for Pakistan. © 2020 World Scientific Publishing Company.