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1.
World J Methodol ; 12(6): 476-487, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several unique clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, have been identified and characterized. One such feature, mostly among patients with severe COVID-19 infection, has become known as COVID-19-induced coagulopathy. Surgical patients with a history of or active COVID-19 infection bear a significantly higher risk for postoperative thrombotic complications. These patients may require surgical intervention to treat severe thrombotic complications. Few studies have been carried out to better characterize this association. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on COVID-19 infections that led to thrombotic complications necessitating surgical intervention. We hypothesized that patients with recent or active COVID-19 infection would have high rates of thromboembolic complications both arterial and venous in origin. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on COVID-19 infections that led to thrombotic complications necessitating surgical intervention. METHODS: The current systematic review implemented an algorithmic approach to review all the currently available English medical literature on surgical interventions necessitated by COVID-19 thrombotic complications using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis principles. A comprehensive search of the medical literature in the "PubMed", "Scopus", "Google Scholar" top 100 results, and archives of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was performed using the key words "COVID-19" AND "surgery" AND "thromboembolism" AND "complication". The search string was generated and the records which were not specific about surgical interventions or thrombotic complications due to COVID-19 infection were excluded. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors and full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and inclusion. Finally, results were further refined to focus on articles that focused on surgical interventions that were necessitated by COVID-19 thrombotic complications. RESULTS: The database search resulted in the final inclusion of 22 retrospective studies, after application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 17 were single case reports, 3 were case series and 2 were cross sectional cohort studies. All studies were retrospective in nature. Twelve of the reported studies were conducted in the United States of America, with the remaining studies originating from Italy, Turkey, Pakistan, France, Serbia, and Germany. All cases reported in our study were laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive. A total of 70 cases involving surgical intervention were isolated from the 22 studies included in this review. CONCLUSION: There is paucity of data describing the relationship between COVID-19 infection and thrombotic complications necessitating the need for surgical intervention. Intestinal ischemia and acute limb ischemia are amongst the most common thrombotic events due to COVID-19 that required operative management. An overall postoperative mortality of 30% was found in those who underwent operative procedures for thrombotic complications, with most deaths occurring in those with bowel ischemia. Physicians should be aware that despite thromboprophylaxis, severe thrombotic complications can still occur in this patient population, however, surgical intervention results in relatively low mortality apart from cases of ischemic bowel resection.

2.
World J Methodol ; 12(6): 465-475, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can produce a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Various researchers have worked to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these variable presentations. Differences in individual responses to systemic inflammation and coagulopathy appear to be modulated by several factors, including sex steroid hormones. Transgender men or non-binary individuals who undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) are a unique population of interest for exploring the androgen-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypothesis. As the search for reliable and effective COVID-19 treatments continues, understanding the risks and benefits of GAHT may mitigate COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality in this patient population. AIM: To investigate the potential role of GAHT in the development of COVID-19 infections and complications. METHODS: This systematic review implemented an algorithmic approach using PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar top 100 results, and archives of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery was on January 12, 2022 using the key words "gender" AND "hormone" AND "therapy" AND "COVID-19" as well as associated terms. Non-English articles, articles published prior to 2019 (prior to COVID-19), and manuscripts in the form of reviews, commentaries, or letters were excluded. References of the selected publications were screened as well. RESULTS: The database search resulted in the final inclusion of 14 studies related to GAHT COVID-19. Of the included studies, only two studies directly involved and reported on COVID-19 in transgender patients. Several clinical trials looked at the relationship between testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone in COVID-19 infected cis-gender men and women. It has been proposed that androgens may facilitate initial COVID-19 infection, however, once this occurs, testosterone may have a protective effect. Multiple clinical studies have shown that low baseline testosterone levels in men with COVID-19 are associated with worsening outcomes. The role of female sex hormones, including estrogen and progesterone have also been proposed as potential protective factors in COVID-19 infection. This was exemplified in multiple studies investigating different outcomes in pre- and post-menopausal women as well as those taking hormone replacement therapy. Two studies related specifically to transgender patients and GAHT found that estrogen and progesterone could help protect men against COVID-19, and that testosterone hormone therapy may increase the risk of contracting COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Few studies were found related to the role of GAHT in COVID-19 infections. Additional research is necessary to enhance our understanding of this relationship and provide better care for transgender patients.

3.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 46(6): 3111-3116, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physician relationships with industry and subsequent financial implications has not been previously assessed. The aim of this study is to compare pre- and post-COVID-19 payments between industry and medical providers for all plastic surgeons. METHODS: Payment information was collected for the 2019 and 2020 reporting periods from the Open Payments Program (OPP) database for plastic surgeons and plastic surgeon subspecialists. An analysis was performed of trends and comparison of payments for each year for all plastic surgeons and each subspecialty cohort. RESULTS: For all plastic surgeons, there was a decrease in industry payments between 2019 and 2020 (- 30.5%). All plastic surgery subspecialties had a decrease in payments with general plastic and reconstructive surgery affected the most (- 56%) and craniofacial surgery affected the least (- 9%). Payments for almost all categories for plastic surgeons decreased along with compensation as faculty or as speakers. Total charitable contributions and grant payments increased by 61 and 273%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Analysis of industry-physician payments available through the Sunshine Act shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted industry payments to plastic surgery and its subspecialties. While this study demonstrates the economic impact of the current pandemic, only time will tell whether these trends will persist in the coming years. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 707358, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515549

ABSTRACT

Nurses caring for patients who contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have experienced significant traumas in the form of increased workloads, negative patient outcomes, and less social support system access. Nurses should be provided with information regarding early detection, coping skills and treatment for anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental health disorders. Early intervention is important as mental health disorders can cause dysfunction, internal suffering, and in the most extreme situations, lead to death if not properly cared for. Healthcare corporations should consider providing coverage for mental health treatment for employees who experience COVID-19 traumas. With the implementation of healthy coping skills and therapeutic intervention, nurses will be able to let go of the negative impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused and reintegrate into their roles as caring and entrusted health care providers. The current paper evaluates the mental health disorders encountered by nurses in the COVID-19 era based on the current medical literature and aims to provide practical coping strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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