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1.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 140-144, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As most COVID-19 transmission occurs locally, targeted measures where the likelihood of infection and hospitalization is highest may be a prudent risk management strategy. To date, in the Republic of Ireland, a regional comparison of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations has not been completed. Here, we investigate (i) the variation in rates of confirmed infection and hospital admissions within geographical units of the Republic of Ireland and (ii) frequency of deviations in risk of infection or risk of hospitalization. METHODS: We analyzed routinely collected, publicly available data available from the National Health Protection and Surveillance Centre and Health Service Executive from nine geographical units, known as Community Health Organization areas. The observational period included 206 14-day periods (1 September 2020-15 April 2021). RESULTS: A total of 206 844 laboratory-confirmed cases and 7721 hospitalizations were reported. The national incidence of confirmed infections was 4508 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4489-4528] per 100 000 people. The risk of hospital admission among confirmed cases was 3.7% (95% CI 3.5-3.9). Across geographical units, the likelihood that rolling 14-day risk of infection or hospitalization exceeded national levels was 9-86% and 0-88%, respectively. In the most affected regions, we estimate this resulted in an excess of 15 180 infections and 1920 hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to future COVID-19 outbreaks should consider the risk and harm of infection posed to people living in specific regions. Given the recent surges of COVID-19 cases in Europe, every effort should be made to strengthen local surveillance and to tailor community-centred measures to control transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 140-144, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As most COVID-19 transmission occurs locally, targeted measures where the likelihood of infection and hospitalization is highest may be a prudent risk management strategy. To date, in the Republic of Ireland, a regional comparison of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations has not been completed. Here, we investigate (i) the variation in rates of confirmed infection and hospital admissions within geographical units of the Republic of Ireland and (ii) frequency of deviations in risk of infection or risk of hospitalization. METHODS: We analyzed routinely collected, publicly available data available from the National Health Protection and Surveillance Centre and Health Service Executive from nine geographical units, known as Community Health Organization areas. The observational period included 206 14-day periods (1 September 2020-15 April 2021). RESULTS: A total of 206 844 laboratory-confirmed cases and 7721 hospitalizations were reported. The national incidence of confirmed infections was 4508 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4489-4528] per 100 000 people. The risk of hospital admission among confirmed cases was 3.7% (95% CI 3.5-3.9). Across geographical units, the likelihood that rolling 14-day risk of infection or hospitalization exceeded national levels was 9-86% and 0-88%, respectively. In the most affected regions, we estimate this resulted in an excess of 15 180 infections and 1920 hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to future COVID-19 outbreaks should consider the risk and harm of infection posed to people living in specific regions. Given the recent surges of COVID-19 cases in Europe, every effort should be made to strengthen local surveillance and to tailor community-centred measures to control transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Irish Medical Journal ; 113(10):1-11, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1158673

ABSTRACT

Aim To examine the characteristics and outcomes of hospitalised older adults with COVID-19. Methods Retrospective, multi-centre, cohort observational study. Data from sixty-nine hospitalised patients aged over 70 years with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 at three Irish hospitals were collected from health records. Symptom profile, COVID-19 severity level based on Irish Thoracic Society guidelines, Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric (CIRS-G) scores, laboratory and radiological data were reviewed. Results Patient mortality rate was 23.2% (n=16). Median survivor age was 81.5 years (IQR 76.5-86.5). Mean CFS and CIRS-G scores were 5;(SD1.6) and 8.19;(SD4.4). Most patients (n=56, 81.1%) were categorised as mild COVID-19 cases. Five patients (n=5, 7%) were asymptomatic. Atypical symptom presentation was 7%(n=5). Delirium was noted in almost one-third of patients (n=21, 30.4%). Seven patients (n=7,10.1%) required intubation and intensive care unit admission. Over 1/3 of delirious patients died (n=8, 38%). Frail patients were older (P= 0.005), more likely to have dementia (P=0.04) and required less ventilatory support than non-frail patients (P=0.001) but were categorised as mild COVID-19 on admission (P=0.004). Conclusion Despite mild COVID-19 symptoms, mortality and delirium rates remained high. Low co-morbidity burden & atypical symptom rates were recorded despite high frailty rates.

4.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(6): e353-e354, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083037

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Hrb Open Research ; 3:63, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045270

ABSTRACT

The surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) research studies involving human participants in response to the pandemic has meant that research ethics committees across the world have been challenged to adapt their processes to meet demand while retaining high standards of review. Ethics review during this pandemic remains essential to ensure the safety, dignity and well-being of research participants, however research ethics committees are now faced with new, and often complex, ethics considerations and logistical challenges. This Open Letter looks specifically at the Irish experience of establishing a national approach to research ethics review amidst a global pandemic. This represents Ireland's first National Research Ethics Committee, which provided the research community with an expedited and 'single national opinion' for ethics review for COVID-related research. The insights gleaned and lessons learned from the Irish experience may inform emergency responses to future pandemics or public health emergencies.

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