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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The open-label RECOVERY study reported improved survival in hospitalized, SARS-CoV-2 seronegative patients treated with casirivimab and imdevimab (CAS + IMD). METHODS: In this phase I/II/III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted prior to widespread circulation of Delta and Omicron, hospitalized COVID-19 patients were randomized (1:1:1) to 2.4 g or 8.0 g CAS + IMD or placebo, and characterized at baseline for viral load and SARS-CoV-2 serostatus. RESULTS: 1336 patients on low-flow or no supplemental (low-flow/no) oxygen were treated. The primary endpoint was met: in seronegative patients, the least-squares mean difference (CAS + IMD versus placebo) for time-weighted average change from baseline in viral load through day 7 was -0.28 log10 copies/mL (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.05; P = .0172). The primary clinical analysis of death or mechanical ventilation (death/MV) from day 6-29 in patients with high viral load had a strong positive trend but did not reach significance. CAS + IMD numerically reduced all-cause mortality in seronegative patients through day 29 (relative risk reduction, 55.6%; 95% CI, 24.2-74.0). No safety concerns were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized COVID-19 patients on low-flow/no oxygen, CAS + IMD reduced viral load and likely improves clinical outcomes in the overall population, with the benefit driven by seronegative patients, and no harm observed in seropositive patients.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open-label platform trials and a prospective meta-analysis suggest efficacy of anti-IL-6R therapies in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving corticosteroids. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of sarilumab, an anti-IL-6R monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this adaptive, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adults hospitalized with COVID-19 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04315298) received intravenous sarilumab or placebo. The phase 3 primary analysis population included patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation randomized to sarilumab 400 mg or placebo. The primary outcome was proportion of patients with ≥1-point improvement in clinical status from baseline to day 22. RESULTS: There were 457 and 1365 patients randomized and treated in phases 2 and 3, respectively. In phase 3, patients with critical COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation (n = 298; 28.2% on corticosteroids), the proportion with ≥1-point improvement in clinical status (alive, not receiving mechanical ventilation) at day 22 was 43.2% in sarilumab and 35.5% in placebo (risk difference +7.5%; 95% CI, -7.4 to 21.3; P = .3261), a relative risk improvement of 21.7%. In post-hoc analyses pooling phase 2 and 3 critical patients receiving mechanical ventilation, the hazard ratio for death in sarilumab versus placebo was 0.76 (95% CI, .51-1.13) overall and 0.49 (95% CI, .25-.94) in patients receiving corticosteroids at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not establish the efficacy of sarilumab in hospitalized patients with severe/critical COVID-19. Post-hoc analyses were consistent with other studies that found a benefit of sarilumab in patients receiving corticosteroids.

3.
Lancet ; 399(10323): 461-472, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A range of safe and effective vaccines against SARS CoV 2 are needed to address the COVID 19 pandemic. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine SCB-2019. METHODS: This ongoing phase 2 and 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done in adults aged 18 years and older who were in good health or with a stable chronic health condition, at 31 sites in five countries (Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Philippines, and South Africa). The participants were randomly assigned 1:1 using a centralised internet randomisation system to receive two 0·5 mL intramuscular doses of SCB-2019 (30 µg, adjuvanted with 1·50 mg CpG-1018 and 0·75 mg alum) or placebo (0·9% sodium chloride for injection supplied in 10 mL ampoules) 21 days apart. All study staff and participants were masked, but vaccine administrators were not. Primary endpoints were vaccine efficacy, measured by RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 of any severity with onset from 14 days after the second dose in baseline SARS-CoV-2 seronegative participants (the per-protocol population), and the safety and solicited local and systemic adverse events in the phase 2 subset. This study is registered on EudraCT (2020-004272-17) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04672395). FINDINGS: 30 174 participants were enrolled from March 24, 2021, until the cutoff date of Aug 10, 2021, of whom 30 128 received their first assigned vaccine (n=15 064) or a placebo injection (n=15 064). The per-protocol population consisted of 12 355 baseline SARS-CoV-2-naive participants (6251 vaccinees and 6104 placebo recipients). Most exclusions (13 389 [44·4%]) were because of seropositivity at baseline. There were 207 confirmed per-protocol cases of COVID-19 at 14 days after the second dose, 52 vaccinees versus 155 placebo recipients, and an overall vaccine efficacy against any severity COVID-19 of 67·2% (95·72% CI 54·3-76·8), 83·7% (97·86% CI 55·9-95·4) against moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and 100% (97·86% CI 25·3-100·0) against severe COVID-19. All COVID-19 cases were due to virus variants; vaccine efficacy against any severity COVID-19 due to the three predominant variants was 78·7% (95% CI 57·3-90·4) for delta, 91·8% (44·9-99·8) for gamma, and 58·6% (13·3-81·5) for mu. No safety issues emerged in the follow-up period for the efficacy analysis (median of 82 days [IQR 63-103]). The vaccine elicited higher rates of mainly mild-to-moderate injection site pain than the placebo after the first (35·7% [287 of 803] vs 10·3% [81 of 786]) and second (26·9% [189 of 702] vs 7·4% [52 of 699]) doses, but the rates of other solicited local and systemic adverse events were similar between the groups. INTERPRETATION: Two doses of SCB-2019 vaccine plus CpG and alum provides notable protection against the entire severity spectrum of COVID-19 caused by circulating SAR-CoV-2 viruses, including the predominating delta variant. FUNDING: Clover Biopharmaceuticals and the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alum Compounds/therapeutic use , Belgium , Brazil , Colombia , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/therapeutic use , Philippines , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Young Adult
5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S809-S810, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564579

ABSTRACT

Background Casirivimab and imdevimab (CAS/IMDEV) is authorized for emergency use in the US for outpatients with COVID-19. We present results from patient cohorts receiving low flow or no supplemental oxygen at baseline from a phase 1/2/3, randomized, double-blinded, placebo (PBO)-controlled trial of CAS/IMDEV in hospitalized patients (pts) with COVID-19. Methods Hospitalized COVID-19 pts were randomized 1:1:1 to 2.4 g or 8.0 g of IV CAS/IMDEV (co-administered) or PBO. Primary endpoints were time-weighted average (TWA) change in viral load from baseline (Day 1) to Day 7;proportion of pts who died or went on mechanical ventilation (MV) through Day 29. Safety was evaluated through Day 57. The study was terminated early due to low enrollment (no safety concerns). Results Analysis was performed in pooled cohorts (low flow or no supplemental oxygen) as well as combined treatment doses (2.4 g and 8.0 g). The prespecified primary virologic analysis was in seronegative (seroneg) pts (combined dose group n=360;PBO n=160), where treatment with CAS/IMDEV led to a significant reduction in viral load from Day 1–7 (TWA change: LS mean (SE): -0.28 (0.12);95% CI: -0.51, -0.05;P=0.0172;Fig. 1). The primary clinical analysis had a strong positive trend, though it did not reach statistical significance (P=0.2048), and 4/6 clinical endpoints prespecified for hypothesis testing were nominally significant (Table 1). In seroneg pts, there was a 47.0% relative risk reduction (RRR) in the proportion of pts who died or went on MV from Day 1–29 (10.3% treated vs 19.4% PBO;nominal P=0.0061;Fig. 2). There was a 55.6% (6.7% treated vs 15.0% PBO;nominal P=0.0032) and 35.9% (7.3% treated vs 11.5% PBO;nominal P=0.0178) RRR in the prespecified secondary endpoint of mortality by Day 29 in seroneg pts and the overall population, respectively (Fig. 2). No harm was seen in seropositive patients, and no safety events of concern were identified. Figure 1: TWA daily viral load decreased from baseline (Day 1) in seronegative patients receiving low flow or no supplemental oxygen Table 1. Primary virologic and clinical endpoints Figure 2: Clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients receiving low flow or no supplemental oxygen* Conclusion Co-administration of CAS/IMDEV led to a significant reduction in viral load in hospitalized, seroneg pts requiring low flow or no supplemental oxygen. In seroneg pts and the overall population, treatment also demonstrated clinically meaningful, nominally significant reductions in 28-day mortality and proportion of pts dying or requiring MV. Disclosures Eleftherios Mylonakis, MD, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Chemic labs/KODA therapeutics (Grant/Research Support)Cidara (Grant/Research Support)Leidos Biomedical Research Inc/NCI (Grant/Research Support)NIH/NIAID (Grant/Research Support)NIH/NIGMS (Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support)Regeneron (Grant/Research Support)SciClone Pharmaceuticals (Grant/Research Support) Selin Somersan-Karakaya, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Sumathi Sivapalasingam, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Excision BioTherapeutics (Employee)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Shareholder, Other Financial or Material Support, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending, former employee) Shazia Ali, PharmD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Yiping Sun, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Rafia Bhore, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Jingning Mei, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Jutta Miller, BS, RN, BARDA (Other Financial or Ma erial Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Lisa Cupelli, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee) Andrea T. Hooper, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Pfizer, Inc. (Shareholder, Other Financial or Material Support, Former employee)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending) Jennifer D. Hamilton, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending) Cynthia Pan, BPharm, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Viet Pham, BS, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Yuming Zhao, MS, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Romana Hosain, MD, MPH, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Adnan Mahmood, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) John D. Davis, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Kenneth C. Turner, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending) Yunji Kim, PharmD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Amanda Cook, BS, Dip Reg Aff, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Jason C. Wells, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C) Bari Kowal, MS, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Yuhwen Soo, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) A. Thomas DiCioccio, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Gregory P. Geba, MD, DrPH, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Shareholder) Neil Stahl, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending) Leah Lipsich, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Ned Braunstein, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Gary Herman, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending) George D. Yancopoulos, MD, PhD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder, Royalties, patents planned, issued or pending) David M. Weinreich, MD, BARDA (Other Financial or Material Support, HHSO100201700020C)Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Employee, Shareholder)

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Hospitalized patients with Covid-19 experience high mortality rates, ranging from 10-30%. Casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV ® ) is authorized in various jurisdictions for use in outpatients with Covid-19 and in post-exposure prophylaxis. The UK-based platform RECOVERY study reported improved survival in hospitalized seronegative patients treated with REGEN-COV, but in most of the world, anti-spike monoclonal antibody therapy is currently not approved for use in hospitalized patients. Methods In this phase 1/2/3 double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients on low-flow or no supplemental oxygen hospitalized with Covid-19 were randomized (1:1:1) to 2.4 g or 8.0 g REGEN-COV or placebo and characterized at baseline for viral load and SARS-CoV-2 endogenous immune response. Results 1336 patients on low-flow or no supplemental oxygen were treated. The primary endpoint was met: in seronegative patients, the LS mean difference (REGEN-COV vs. placebo) for TWA change from baseline viral load was −0.28 log 10 copies/mL (95% CI: −0.51, −0.05;P=0.0172). The primary clinical analysis of death or mechanical ventilation from day 6-29 in patients with high-viral load had a strong positive trend but did not reach significance. REGEN-COV reduced all-cause mortality in seronegative patients through day 29 (RRR, 55.6%;95% CI: 24.2%, 74%). No safety concerns were noted overall nor in seropositive patients. Conclusions In hospitalized patients with Covid-19 on low-flow or no oxygen, REGEN-COV treatment reduced viral load and the risk of death or mechanical ventilation as well as all-cause mortality in the overall population, with the benefit driven by seronegative patients and no harm observed in seropositive patients. ( ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04426695 .)

7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(23): e81, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the phase 1-2 portion of an adaptive trial, REGEN-COV, a combination of the monoclonal antibodies casirivimab and imdevimab, reduced the viral load and number of medical visits in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). REGEN-COV has activity in vitro against current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern. METHODS: In the phase 3 portion of an adaptive trial, we randomly assigned outpatients with Covid-19 and risk factors for severe disease to receive various doses of intravenous REGEN-COV or placebo. Patients were followed through day 29. A prespecified hierarchical analysis was used to assess the end points of hospitalization or death and the time to resolution of symptoms. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS: Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause occurred in 18 of 1355 patients in the REGEN-COV 2400-mg group (1.3%) and in 62 of 1341 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization concurrently (4.6%) (relative risk reduction [1 minus the relative risk], 71.3%; P<0.001); these outcomes occurred in 7 of 736 patients in the REGEN-COV 1200-mg group (1.0%) and in 24 of 748 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization concurrently (3.2%) (relative risk reduction, 70.4%; P = 0.002). The median time to resolution of symptoms was 4 days shorter with each REGEN-COV dose than with placebo (10 days vs. 14 days; P<0.001 for both comparisons). REGEN-COV was efficacious across various subgroups, including patients who were SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody-positive at baseline. Both REGEN-COV doses reduced viral load faster than placebo; the least-squares mean difference in viral load from baseline through day 7 was -0.71 log10 copies per milliliter (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.90 to -0.53) in the 1200-mg group and -0.86 log10 copies per milliliter (95% CI, -1.00 to -0.72) in the 2400-mg group. Serious adverse events occurred more frequently in the placebo group (4.0%) than in the 1200-mg group (1.1%) and the 2400-mg group (1.3%); infusion-related reactions of grade 2 or higher occurred in less than 0.3% of the patients in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: REGEN-COV reduced the risk of Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause, and it resolved symptoms and reduced the SARS-CoV-2 viral load more rapidly than placebo. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04425629.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Proportional Hazards Models , Viral Load/drug effects , Young Adult
8.
N Engl J Med ; 384(3): 238-251, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that complications and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may be related to high viral loads. METHODS: In this ongoing, double-blind, phase 1-3 trial involving nonhospitalized patients with Covid-19, we investigated two fully human, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, used in a combined cocktail (REGN-COV2) to reduce the risk of the emergence of treatment-resistant mutant virus. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive placebo, 2.4 g of REGN-COV2, or 8.0 g of REGN-COV2 and were prospectively characterized at baseline for endogenous immune response against SARS-CoV-2 (serum antibody-positive or serum antibody-negative). Key end points included the time-weighted average change in viral load from baseline (day 1) through day 7 and the percentage of patients with at least one Covid-19-related medically attended visit through day 29. Safety was assessed in all patients. RESULTS: Data from 275 patients are reported. The least-squares mean difference (combined REGN-COV2 dose groups vs. placebo group) in the time-weighted average change in viral load from day 1 through day 7 was -0.56 log10 copies per milliliter (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.02 to -0.11) among patients who were serum antibody-negative at baseline and -0.41 log10 copies per milliliter (95% CI, -0.71 to -0.10) in the overall trial population. In the overall trial population, 6% of the patients in the placebo group and 3% of the patients in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups reported at least one medically attended visit; among patients who were serum antibody-negative at baseline, the corresponding percentages were 15% and 6% (difference, -9 percentage points; 95% CI, -29 to 11). The percentages of patients with hypersensitivity reactions, infusion-related reactions, and other adverse events were similar in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups and the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In this interim analysis, the REGN-COV2 antibody cocktail reduced viral load, with a greater effect in patients whose immune response had not yet been initiated or who had a high viral load at baseline. Safety outcomes were similar in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups and the placebo group. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and the Biomedical and Advanced Research and Development Authority of the Department of Health and Human Services; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04425629.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/drug effects , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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