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International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science ; 14(6):65, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2296604


The pandemic situation due to covid-19 has disrupted routine activities such as attending classes physically in educational institutions, which insisted on moving towards online education with the help of advent and increased uses of new telecommunication services. Service quality is the prerequisite for customer satisfaction. Service quality assessment is crucial to ensure increased customer satisfaction in any service. Typically, it is not easy to evaluate service quality because of opacity in the information, and incompleteness characteristics of problems. With the collected data through an online survey, this study aims to analyze the facts that influence the students' perception regarding the impact of telecommunication service quality on online education during the pandemic situation. Initially, some relevant criteria are derived from literature reviews. The proposed model is exerted to evaluate the quality of the online education and telecommunication service in Bangladesh during the covid-19 pandemic with the participation of 350 students answering 39 questions. The collected data is analyzed to assess the current state of service quality by evaluating the students' satisfaction using the entropy technique. The findings of the study suggest that the online education system in Bangladesh is not interactive enough, and the telecommunication service quality here is not sufficient for this purpose. Telecommunication challenges such as poor network quality, overpricing structure of telecommunication services and slow connection speed must be resolved to ensure satisfactory quality of online education.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010365


BACKGROUND: The adaptive immune response is a crucial component of the protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, generated after infection or vaccination. METHODS: We studied antibody titers, neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to four different COVID-19 vaccines, namely Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna Spikevax, AstraZeneca and Sinopharm vaccines in the Bangladeshi population (n = 1780). RESULTS: mRNA vaccines Moderna (14,655 ± 11.3) and Pfizer (13,772 ± 11.5) elicited significantly higher anti-Spike (S) antibody titers compared to the Adenovector vaccine AstraZeneca (2443 ± 12.8) and inactivated vaccine Sinopharm (1150 ± 11.2). SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies as well as IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes were more abundant in Pfizer and Moderna vaccine recipients compared to AstraZeneca and Sinopharm vaccine recipients. Participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibited higher post-vaccine immune responses (S-specific and neutralizing antibodies, IFN-γ-secreting cells) compared to uninfected participants. Memory B (BMEM), total CD8+T, CD4+ central memory (CD4+CM) and T-regulatory (TREG) cells were more numerous in AstraZeneca vaccine recipients compared to other vaccine recipients. Plasmablasts, B-regulatory (BREG) and CD4+ effector (CD4+EFF) cells were more numerous in mRNA vaccine recipients. CONCLUSIONS: mRNA vaccines generated a higher antibody response, while a differential cellular response was observed for different vaccine types, suggesting that both cellular and humoral responses are important in immune monitoring of different types of vaccines.

PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268093, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862266


BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies have been carried out in many developed and developing countries to evaluate ongoing and past infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data on this infection in marginalized populations in urban slums are limited, which may offer crucial information to update prevention and mitigation policies and strategies. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and factors associated with seropositivity in slum and non-slum communities in two large cities in Bangladesh. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the target population in Dhaka and Chattogram cities between October 2020 and February 2021. Questionnaire-based data, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and blood were obtained. SARS-CoV-2 serology was assessed by Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay. RESULTS: Among the 3220 participants (2444 adults, ≥18 years; 776 children, 10-17 years), the overall weighted seroprevalence was 67.3% (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 65.2, 69.3) with 71.0% in slum (95% CI = 68.7, 72.2) and 62.2% in non-slum (95% CI = 58.5, 65.8). The weighted seroprevalence was 72.9% in Dhaka and 54.2% in Chattogram. Seroprevalence was positively associated with limited years of formal education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.43, 1.82), lower income (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.46), overweight (aOR = 1.2835; 95% CI = 1.26, 1.97), diabetes (aOR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.21, 2.32) and heart disease (aOR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.86). Contrarily, negative associations were found between seropositivity and regular wearing of masks and washing hands, and prior BCG vaccination. About 63% of the population had asymptomatic infection; only 33% slum and 49% non-slum population showed symptomatic infection. CONCLUSION: The estimated seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was more prominent in impoverished informal settlements than in the adjacent middle-income non-slum areas. Additional factors associated with seropositivity included limited education, low income, overweight and pre-existing chronic conditions. Behavioral factors such as regular wearing of masks and washing hands were associated with lower probability of seropositivity.

COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Overweight , Poverty Areas , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination