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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295496

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with co-morbidities are particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19 disease. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 frequently experience severe tachycardias and avoidance of these is important in some co-morbidities, for instance cardiovascular disease. There is growing interest in beta blockade in critical illness as their use been associated with improved outcomes in a variety of conditions. We report the real-world use of heart rate management in patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. As retrospective data are prone to an Immortal Time Bias, we created a Cohort Trial such as might be used for a future prospective trial and used Time Dependent Covariate Analysis for its analysis. Methods: : Data for all PCR-proven COVID-19 patients ventilated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were extracted from the hospital databases. To compensate for the risk of immortal time bias, we restricted analysis to 144 patients who achieved a heart rate (HR) of 90 beats per minute for more than 12 hours and were treated with norepinephrine. We recorded time from these ‘entry criteria’ to first beta blocker dose. Those patients who did not receive a beta blocker were given a nominal time to beta blocker beyond the censor day. Outcome was mortality censored at 28 days. Results: : In the study group, 83/144 patients (57.6%) received a beta blocker. The median interval from entry criteria to beta blocker was 7.91 days (IQR 3.89, 13.15) and median duration of treatment was 7.00 days (IQR 4.00, 14.00). Twenty-four beta blocker patients (28.9%) died within 28 days compared with 29 (47.5%) who did not (adjusted OR 0.43;95% CI 0.20-0.95, P=0.036). Cox Regression with time-dependent covariate analysis revealed there was an increased, but not significant, risk of death with beta blocker delay (Hazard Ratio 1.42 p=0.264). Mortality was also reduced for each day treated with beta blockade (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.91;P=0.002). Conclusions: : In a retrospective analysis of critically ill ventilated patients with COVID-19 who developed a tachycardia >90 beats per minute and were treated with norepinephrine, beta blockade was associated with reduced mortality.

2.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 1413-1429, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVD-19 cases on the rise globally and two approved vaccines, determining vaccine acceptance is imperative to avoid low inoculation rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes and determinants of vaccine acceptance among citizens and non-citizens, over time during the pandemic in Kuwait. METHODS: Data were obtained from the COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO Kuwait) study that was implemented according to the WHO tool for behavioral insights on COVID-19. Data was collected online, every two weeks throughout the pandemic. Individuals living in Kuwait during the pandemic were surveyed, representing an independent sample of the population during each data collection wave. RESULTS: A total of 7241 adults living in Kuwait participated. Sixty-seven percent of those participating agreed to take a vaccine if it was available and recommended. However, the proportion of vaccine acceptance drastically dropped overtime as COVID-19 related restrictions were eased, among citizens (73 to 47%) and noncitizens (80 to 60%). Some factors associated with increased odds of agreeing to take the COVID-19 vaccine, among citizens and non-citizens, included increased frequency of informing oneself about the virus (OR, 1.34-1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.55), having high versus low confidence in doctors (OR, 1.79-2.11; CI 1.17-3.80), increased agreement with containment policies (OR, 1.11-1.27; CI 1.05-1.41), expressing more fears and worries (OR, 1.05-1.12; 1.01-1.24), and the increased perceived likelihood of getting infected with influenza (OR, 1.3-1.4; CI 1.03-1.84). Decreased odds of agreement were associated with increased age (OR, 0.37-0.61; CI 0.26-0.95), being female (OR, 0.56-0.62; CI 0.43-0.73), and not taking the influenza vaccine in 2019 (OR, 0.61; CI 0.43-0.87). CONCLUSION: Vaccine acceptance was multifactorial, heterogenous among citizens and non-citizens, and changed over time. While acceptance was relatively high, it decreased throughout the pandemic and as restrictions in the country loosened. This increase in vaccine hesitancy reveals a challenge in achieving high inoculation levels, and the need for effective vaccine-promotion campaigns and increased health education in the country.

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