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1.
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 23(1):18-23, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841783

ABSTRACT

Background: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses worldwide. IBV has a broad tissue distribution with different viral loads in different tissues. Additionally, IBV can induce apoptosis in infected cells. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of the genetic background of chickens in viral load and the expression level of apoptotic genes in different tissues of two hybrids of commercial broiler chickens (Ross 308 and Cobb 500) challenged with IBV.

2.
Acta Medica Iranica ; 59(12):704-712, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1667848

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic obligated applying population-level behavioral modifications to effectively prevent the spread of the disease. This necessitated investigating those measures that determine population behavior. Herein we have studied risk perception and information exposure that are among those determinants in Iran. 402 cases from medical sciences students were enrolled during the last week of September 2020. Using an online questionnaire, risk perception and sources of information about COVID-19 were investigated. Although most students considered COVID-19 preventable, merely a few considered the disease curable. A higher risk was perceived concerning the families compared to themselves. Moreover, most of them believed the prognosis good even in high-risk patients. Social media was the most informative source used;however, health professionals were considered the most reliable. The risk perception was equal between those diagnosed with COVID-19 or had a family member diagnosed compared to those without such exposure in most questions. Also, no significant difference was observed in risk perception between those students with serious underlying medical conditions and those without one regarding most items. Lastly, major and grade were the most significant demographic contributors to the risk perception. Moderate risk was perceived overall among the cases in which major and grade were the only remarkable demographic contributors. Unexpectedly, underlying medical history was not significantly correlated with the perceived risk. Lastly, previous COVID-19 exposure merely altered the curability and preventability perception.

3.
Journal of Zoonotic Diseases ; 5(3):34-42, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1574826

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome is a novel beta coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 has a putative animal origin. As SARS-CoV-2 started outspreading in the whole world, potential spill overexposure was considered in companion and pet animals, similarly because of their strict social relationship with humans. As the novel coronavirus prevalence spreads in the world with devastating impacts on human health, pets and companion animals are also becoming unessential sacrifices among the pandemic panic and concern amid the public that companion animals might play a role in spreading COVID-19 pets being obsolete or even killed. These facts led to a KAP survey design to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19 and pets among pet owners referring to veterinary clinics. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional paper-based survey. The questionnaire comprised 56 items, of which nine were on socio-demographic profiles, 41 were on KAP of COVID-19 and pets, and the other six items were on the source of individual information about this subject. The questionnaire was answered by 462 participants anonymously in October 2020. All the statistical analyses were performed by using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 26.0. Based on the results, most general population (62.7%) had moderate knowledge about the Covid-19, and 22.1% had insufficient knowledge about this subject. The present study indicated that a higher knowledge score concerning COVID-19 was notably related to a higher likelihood of having a positive tendency and good practice when the COVID-19 outbreak. Also, our findings presented that the majority of participants (62.3%) obtained their information from social media.

4.
Dermatology and Cosmetic ; 12(1):3-10, 2021.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1362937

ABSTRACT

The fifth paper of reviews on COVID-19 addresses COVID-19 vaccines, as vaccination has started in the world and Iran. In this paper, we review different types of available vaccines and also various platforms for production of COVID-19 vaccines as well as the vaccines produced in each platform in the world and Iran. Then the considerations about vaccination in patients with skin diseases, specially those using immunomodulator drugs will be presented. Finally, the cutaneous adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines will be reviewed.

5.
Tehran University Medical Journal ; 78(12):796-805, 2021.
Article in Persian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1158593

ABSTRACT

The development of industry and technology, changes in agriculture, trade and global travel, and the adaptation of microorganisms are important factors in the occurrence of emerging diseases. Currently, the world is facing a pandemic caused by an emerging virus called the novel coronavirus (Covid 19) in 2020. This disease led to infect more than one million people worldwide and the death of more than five hundred thousand people during six months. Covid 19 causes death in patients with respiratory problems of varying severity. Fever, soreness, dry coughs, shortness of breath, runny nose, and nasal congestion were observed in coronavirus-infected individuals. Fever was one of its common symptoms. Other unusual signs such as diarrhea and nausea were reported for this disease. For the first time, the bat was introduced as the host of the novel coronavirus in China. Therefore, identifying the initial route of transmission of the novel coronavirus is necessary to prevent the occurrence and its widespread distribution. The virus enters into a human through respiratory particles as well as touching the surfaces contaminated by nasal, mouth and eye secretions. Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens needing host cells to survive. These microorganisms cannot proliferate in foods and require live cells for existence. Food is introduced as a carrier of viruses to the consumer. There have been no reports of novel coronavirus transmission through food. However, it is important to observe the principles of health and safety by assuming the spread of the virus due to food contamination. Regarding the presence and proliferation of novel coronavirus in the gastrointestinal tract and aerosol formation of this microorganism in the feces and the possibility of retransmitting it to people from various environmental sources, the most important priority is to remove the virus from food environments. It is also important to update the methods of disinfecting surfaces, especially areas with high contact of hand as well as personal hygiene. Therefore, it is recommended to educate the staff about managing the novel coronavirus and improving health guidelines. Furthermore, keeping distance and washing hands is in priority in different food-related environments.

6.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 177(3): 275-282, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection represent a clinical challenge because they encompass a broad neurological spectrum and may occur before the diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: In this monocentric retrospective case series, medical records from patients with acute neurological disorders associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection from medicine departments of an academic center in Paris area were collected between March 15th and May 15th 2020. Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 was ascertained through specific RT-PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs or based on circulating serum IgG antibodies. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection presented with neurological disorders: encephalitis (N=8), encephalopathy (N=6), cerebrovascular events (ischemic strokes N=4 and vein thromboses N=2), other central nervous system (CNS) disorders (N=4), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (N=2). The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 was delayed on average 1.6 days after the onset of neurological disorder, especially in case of encephalitis 3.9 days, encephalopathy 1.0 day, and cerebrovascular event 2.7 days. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that COVID-19 can yield a broad spectrum of neurological disorders. Because neurological presentations of COVID-19 often occur a few days before the diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infection, clinicians should take preventive measures such as patient isolation and masks for any new admission to avoid nosocomial infections. Anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody detection in RT-PCR SARS CoV-2 negative suspected cases is useful to confirm a posteriori the diagnosis of atypical COVID-19 presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Paris/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
7.
Open Microbiology Journal ; 14(1):290-296, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-992990

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is considered an emerging disease that results in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Coronaviruses, as single-stranded RNA viruses, have envelope and positive-sense genome. Virion’s nucleocapsid contains genomic RNA and phosphorylated nucleocapsid protein, which is located within the phospholipid layers and is covered with spike proteins. Although considerable research improvements have occurred, the virus origin is yet obscure. There are several factors that contribute to the development of COVID-19, such as mutations, viral loads, and the survival of the virus in the laboratory, or related factors such as age, sex, and immune status. Proper diagnosis of changes in biochemical and immunological factors affecting COVID-19 leads to the rapid detection of this disease. Finding suitable biochemical and immunological biomarkers could help us in early diagnosis and reducing the casualties of this disease. However, further studies for finding a good solution to early diagnosis require a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this virus. In this review, we review the biochemical and immunological biomarkers used for laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

8.
Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control ; 7(3):116-118, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-886356
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