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Coronaviruses ; 3(2):10-22, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2266130


Background: Currently, the present world is facing a new deadly challenge from a pandemic disease called COVID-19, which is caused by a coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2. To date, no drug or vaccine can treat COVID-19 completely, but some drugs have been used primarily, and they are in different stages of clinical trials. This review article discussed and compared those drugs which are running ahead in COVID-19 treatments. Method(s): We have explored PUBMED, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, as well as press releases of WHO, NIH and FDA for articles related to COVID-19 and reviewed them. Result(s): Drugs like favipiravir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ivermectin, corticosteroids and interferons have been found effective to some extent, and partially approved by FDA and WHO to treat COVID-19 at different levels. However, some of these drugs have been disapproved later, although clinical trials are going on. In parallel, plasma therapy has been found fruitful to some extent too, and a number of vaccine trials are going on. Conclusion(s): This review article discussed the epidemiologic and mechanistic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, and how drugs could act on this virus with the comparative discussion on progress and drawbacks of major drugs used till date, which might be beneficial for choosing therapies against COVID-19 in different countries.Copyright © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 12:880-891, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1110977


Background and Aims: The pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 has been devastating not only for its direct impact on lives and physical health settings, but also on mental health status. Due to the pandemic, the majority of the individuals exposed to an unprecedented stressful lockdown situation with unknown duration worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the psychological health (prevalence of perceived stress, anxiety, and depression as well as insomnia symptoms) impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the general peoples and assess the mental health education users. Methods: Following the previous literatures, semi-structured questionnaires were developed and snowball sampling technique was applied in this qualitative study. Data were analyzed via SPSS Statistical software;while p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Our result revealed that, among 50% anxiety symptoms, mild, moderate and severe level were of 28%, 17 % and 5%, respectively whereas the percentages of minimal, moderate and severe symptoms were found to be 8.4%, 2.9% and 1.6%, corresponding among 12.9% depressed people whereas sub-threshold, moderate and severe clinical symptoms (15%, 6 % and 2%, respectively) among 23.3% insomnia. However, self-reported stress as well as mental dysfunction showed significant value of 54.4% and 1.3%, respectively in contrasting with 23.3% demonstrated normal psychic behavior. Dual psychiatric problems including stress and anxiety, anxiety and insomnia and depression and insomnia symptoms were reported by 37%, 15% and 6% participants, respectively. There was insignificant (p<0.05) mental health effects in response to gender variations. 21%, 16%, 2% and 5% exhibited stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia among 30% female, and the results were 35%, 34%, 11% and 18% among 69.6% male respondents. The study reported that, 47.4% respondents used health education related to decreasing pandemic mental distress syndromes. Conclusion: An integrated approach in few settings including mental health educations, community connectedness and effective health policies are needed not only to manage psychological pandemic health problems and for strengthening the overall health systems.