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1.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(16): 3919-3926, 2021 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the traditional surgical treatment for patellar fractures, and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), especially Oxford UKA, has been increasingly used in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, the process of choosing treatment for patients with both patellar fractures and anteromedial knee OA remains unclear. We present the case of a patient with a patellar fracture and anteromedial OA. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of bilateral medial compartment OA of the knees and a right Oxford UKA. She also experienced a recent left patellar fracture. ORIF and Oxford UKA were performed in a single stage. The patient showed excellent postoperative clinical results. CONCLUSION: ORIF and Oxford UKA can be performed simultaneously for patients with patellar fracture and anteromedial OA on the same knee.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149678, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356434

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has brought viruses into the public horizon. Since viruses can pose a threat to human health in a low concentration range, seeking efficient virus removal methods has been the research hotspots in the past few years. Herein, a total of 1060 research papers were collected from the Web of Science database to identify technological trends as well as the research status. Based on the analysis results, this review elaborates on the state-of-the-art of membrane filtration and disinfection technologies for the treatment of virus-containing wastewater and drinking water. The results evince that membrane and disinfection methods achieve a broad range of virus removal efficiency (0.5-7 log reduction values (LRVs) and 0.09-8 LRVs, respectively) that is attributable to the various interactions between membranes or disinfectants and viruses having different susceptibility in viral capsid protein and nucleic acid. Moreover, this review discusses the related challenges and potential of membrane and disinfection technologies for customized virus removal in order to prevent the dissemination of the waterborne diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Water Purification , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
3.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 231, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown its destructiveness with more than one million confirmed cases and dozens of thousands of death, which is highly contagious and still spreading globally. World-wide studies have been conducted aiming to understand the COVID-19 mechanism, transmission, clinical features, etc. A cross-language terminology of COVID-19 is essential for improving knowledge sharing and scientific discovery dissemination. METHODS: We developed a bilingual terminology of COVID-19 named COVID Term with mapping Chinese and English terms. The terminology was constructed as follows: (1) Classification schema design; (2) Concept representation model building; (3) Term source selection and term extraction; (4) Hierarchical structure construction; (5) Quality control (6) Web service. We built open access for the terminology, providing search, browse, and download services. RESULTS: The proposed COVID Term include 10 categories: disease, anatomic site, clinical manifestation, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, living organism, qualifiers, psychological assistance, medical equipment, instruments and materials, epidemic prevention and control, diagnosis and treatment technique respectively. In total, COVID Terms covered 464 concepts with 724 Chinese terms and 887 English terms. All terms are openly available online (COVID Term URL: http://covidterm.imicams.ac.cn ). CONCLUSIONS: COVID Term is a bilingual terminology focused on COVID-19, the epidemic pneumonia with a high risk of infection around the world. It will provide updated bilingual terms of the disease to help health providers and medical professionals retrieve and exchange information and knowledge in multiple languages. COVID Term was released in machine-readable formats (e.g., XML and JSON), which would contribute to the information retrieval, machine translation and advanced intelligent techniques application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Language , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 355, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, it has been documented that old age and underlying illnesses are associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients. However, it is unknown whether sarcopenia, a common geriatric syndrome, is associated with poor prognosis among older COVID-19 patients. The aim of our prospective cohort study is to investigate the association between sarcopenia risk and severe disease among COVID-19 patients aged ≥60 years. METHOD: A prospective cohort study of 114 hospitalized older patients (≥60 years) with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia between 7 February, 2020 and 6 April, 2020. Epidemiological, socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data on admission and outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records. All patients were assessed for sarcopenia on admission using the SARC-F scale and the outcome was the development of the severe disease within 60 days. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to identify the association between sarcopenia and progression of disease defined as severe cases in a total of 2908 person-days. RESULT: Of 114 patients (mean age 69.52 ± 7.25 years, 50% woman), 38 (33%) had a high risk of sarcopenia while 76 (67%) did not. We found that 43 (38%) patients progressed to severe cases. COVID-19 patients with higher risk sarcopenia were more likely to develop severe disease than those without (68% versus 22%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, higher risk sarcopenia was associated with a higher hazard of severe condition [hazard ratio = 2.87 (95% CI, 1.33-6.16)]. CONCLUSION: We found that COVID-19 patients with higher sarcopenia risk were more likely to develop severe condition. A clinician-friendly assessment of sarcopenia could help in early warning of older patients at high-risk with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Aged , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 343: 130139, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240621

ABSTRACT

Owing to the over-increasing demands in resisting and managing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, development of rapid, highly sensitive, accurate, and versatile tools for monitoring total antibody concentrations at the population level has been evolved as an urgent challenge on measuring the fatality rate, tracking the changes in incidence and prevalence, comprehending medical sequelae after recovery, as well as characterizing seroprevalence and vaccine coverage. To this end, herein we prepared highly luminescent quantum dot nanobeads (QBs) by embedding numerous quantum dots into polymer matrix, and then applied it as a signal-amplification label in lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). After covalently linkage with the expressed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RSSP), the synthesized QBs were used to determine the total antibody levels in sera by virtue of a double-antigen sandwich immunoassay. Under the developed condition, the QB-LFIA can allow the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies within 15 min with about one order of magnitude improvement in analytical sensitivity compared to conventional gold nanoparticle-based LFIA. In addition, the developed QB-LFIA performed well in clinical study in dynamic monitoring of serum antibody levels in the whole course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, we successfully developed a promising fluorescent immunological sensing tool for characterizing the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and confirming the acquired immunity to COVID-19 by evaluating the SRAS-CoV-2 total antibody level in the crowd.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117257, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217544

ABSTRACT

Reusing treated wastewater can effectively alleviate water shortages and water contamination problems but depends on ensuring the safety of the reclaimed water that is produced. The operating and management conditions for water reclamation plants in China have been changed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in China at the end of 2019 to prevent emerging viruses being spread through wastewater treatment processes and the reclaimed water that is produced. Removal of pathogens and trace organic compounds (e.g., pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals) in a real water reclamation plant after the start of COVID-19 epidemic was studied. Disinfection byproduct formation caused by chlorine being added to meet disinfection requirements was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganism concentrations in effluent were <2 (most probable number)/L, and the removal rates for most trace organic compounds were >80% when advanced treatments were performed using ozone, ultraviolet light, and chlorine doses of 2 mg/L, 20.5 mJ/cm2, and 2-3 mg/L, respectively. The main disinfection byproduct produced at a chlorine dose of 2 mg/L and a residence time of 1 h was chloroform (at concentrations <15 µg/L). The results indicated that the water reclamation processes with modified conditions gave high pathogen and trace organic compound removal rates and reasonably well-controlled disinfection byproduct concentrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Chlorine , Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 615287, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133947

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the Chinese government took a series of public health measures to tackle the outbreak and recommended six traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) evolved formulas, collectively referred to as "3-drugs-3-formulas", for the treatment. In this prospective article, we will discuss how these six formulas evolved from TCM and what their underlying mechanisms of actions may be by evaluating the historical usage of the component formulas, the potential targeted pathways for the individual herbs used by STAR (signal transduction activity response) database from our laboratory, and the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Five of the six recommended formulas are administered orally, while the sixth is taken as an injection. Five classic categories of herbs in the six formulas including "Qing-Re", "Qu-Shi", "Huo-Xue", "Bu-Yi" and "Xing-Qi" herbs are used based on different stages of disease. All five oral formulas build upon the core formula Maxingshigan Decoction (MD) which has anti-inflammatory and perhaps antiviral actions. While MD can have some desired effects, it may not be sufficient to treat COVID-19 on its own; consequently, complementary classic formulas and/or herbs have been added to potentiate each recommended formula's anti-inflammatory, and perhaps anti-renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-mediated bradykinin storm (RBS) and antiviral effects to address the unique medical needs for different stages of COVID-19. The key actions of these formulas are likely to control systemic inflammation and/or RBS. The usage of Chinese medicine in the six formulas is consistent with the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Thus, an integrative systems biology approach-combining botanical treatments of conventional antiviral, anti-inflammatory or anti-RBS drugs to treat COVID-19 and its complications - should be explored.

8.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065073

ABSTRACT

The transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented challenges for the control of the indoor environment of isolation wards. Scientific air distribution design and operation management are crucial to ensure the environmental safety of medical staff. This paper proposes the application of adaptive wall-based attachment ventilation and evaluates this air supply mode based on contaminants dispersion, removal efficiency, thermal comfort, and operating expense. Adaptive wall-based attachment ventilation provides a direct supply of fresh air to the occupied zone. In comparison with a ceiling air supply or upper sidewall air supply, adaptive wall-based attachment ventilation results in a 15%-47% lower average concentration of contaminants, for a continual release of contaminants at the same air changes per hour (ACH; 10 h-1). The contaminant removal efficiency of complete mixing ventilation cannot exceed 1.0. For adaptive wall-based attachment ventilation, the contaminant removal efficiency is an exponential function of the ACH. Compared with the ceiling air supply mode or upper sidewall air supply mode, adaptive wall-based attachment ventilation achieves a similar thermal comfort level (predicted mean vote (PMV) of -0.1-0.4; draught rate of 2.5%-6.7%) and a similar performance in removing contaminants, but has a lower ACH and uses less energy.

9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112753, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885210

ABSTRACT

A polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted copper in-situ growth (CISG) strategy was proposed as a controlled signal amplification strategy to enhance the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow sensors (AuNP-LFS). The controlled signal amplification is achieved by introducing PEI as a structure-directing agent to regulate the thermodynamics of anisotropic Cu nanoshell growth on the AuNP surface, thus controlling shape and size of the resultant AuNP@Cu core-shell nanostructures and confining free reduction and self-nucleation of Cu2+ for improved reproducibility and decreased false positives. The PEI-CISG-enhanced AuNP-LFS showed ultrahigh sensitivities with the detection limits of 50 fg mL-1 for HIV-1 capsid p24 antigen and 6 CFU mL-1 for Escherichia coli O157:H7. We further demonstrated its clinical diagnostic efficacy by configuring PEI-CISG into a commercial AuNP-LFS detection kit for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Altogether, this work provides a reliable signal amplification platform to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of AuNP-LFS for rapid and accurate diagnostics of various infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Copper/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Equipment Design , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , HIV Core Protein p24/analysis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Oxidation-Reduction , Pandemics , Polyethyleneimine/chemistry , Reagent Strips/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Lancet ; 396(10249): 479-488, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This is the first randomised controlled trial for assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a candidate non-replicating adenovirus type-5 (Ad5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine, aiming to determine an appropriate dose of the candidate vaccine for an efficacy study. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of the Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine was done in a single centre in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged 18 years or older, who were HIV-negative and previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-free, were eligible to participate and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine at a dose of 1 × 1011 viral particles per mL or 5 × 1010 viral particles per mL, or placebo. Investigators allocated participants at a ratio of 2:1:1 to receive a single injection intramuscularly in the arm. The randomisation list (block size 4) was generated by an independent statistician. Participants, investigators, and staff undertaking laboratory analyses were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoints for immunogenicity were the geometric mean titres (GMTs) of specific ELISA antibody responses to the receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralising antibody responses at day 28. The primary endpoint for safety evaluation was the incidence of adverse reactions within 14 days. All recruited participants who received at least one dose were included in the primary and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04341389. FINDINGS: 603 volunteers were recruited and screened for eligibility between April 11 and 16, 2020. 508 eligible participants (50% male; mean age 39·7 years, SD 12·5) consented to participate in the trial and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (1 × 1011 viral particles n=253; 5 × 1010 viral particles n=129) or placebo (n=126). In the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, the RBD-specific ELISA antibodies peaked at 656·5 (95% CI 575·2-749·2) and 571·0 (467·6-697·3), with seroconversion rates at 96% (95% CI 93-98) and 97% (92-99), respectively, at day 28. Both doses of the vaccine induced significant neutralising antibody responses to live SARS-CoV-2, with GMTs of 19·5 (95% CI 16·8-22·7) and 18·3 (14·4-23·3) in participants receiving 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles, respectively. Specific interferon γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses post vaccination were observed in 227 (90%, 95% CI 85-93) of 253 and 113 (88%, 81-92) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Solicited adverse reactions were reported by 183 (72%) of 253 and 96 (74%) of 129 participants in the 1 × 1011 and 5 × 1010 viral particles dose groups, respectively. Severe adverse reactions were reported by 24 (9%) participants in the 1 × 1011 viral particles dose group and one (1%) participant in the 5 × 1010 viral particles dose group. No serious adverse reactions were documented. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine at 5 × 1010 viral particles is safe, and induced significant immune responses in the majority of recipients after a single immunisation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Programme of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Young Adult
12.
Lancet ; 395(10240): 1845-1854, 2020 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A vaccine to protect against COVID-19 is urgently needed. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vectored COVID-19 vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain. METHODS: We did a dose-escalation, single-centre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 1 trial of an Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine in Wuhan, China. Healthy adults aged between 18 and 60 years were sequentially enrolled and allocated to one of three dose groups (5 × 1010, 1 × 1011, and 1·5 × 1011 viral particles) to receive an intramuscular injection of vaccine. The primary outcome was adverse events in the 7 days post-vaccination. Safety was assessed over 28 days post-vaccination. Specific antibodies were measured with ELISA, and the neutralising antibody responses induced by vaccination were detected with SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation and pseudovirus neutralisation tests. T-cell responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot and flow-cytometry assays. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04313127. FINDINGS: Between March 16 and March 27, 2020, we screened 195 individuals for eligibility. Of them, 108 participants (51% male, 49% female; mean age 36·3 years) were recruited and received the low dose (n=36), middle dose (n=36), or high dose (n=36) of the vaccine. All enrolled participants were included in the analysis. At least one adverse reaction within the first 7 days after the vaccination was reported in 30 (83%) participants in the low dose group, 30 (83%) participants in the middle dose group, and 27 (75%) participants in the high dose group. The most common injection site adverse reaction was pain, which was reported in 58 (54%) vaccine recipients, and the most commonly reported systematic adverse reactions were fever (50 [46%]), fatigue (47 [44%]), headache (42 [39%]), and muscle pain (18 [17%]. Most adverse reactions that were reported in all dose groups were mild or moderate in severity. No serious adverse event was noted within 28 days post-vaccination. ELISA antibodies and neutralising antibodies increased significantly at day 14, and peaked 28 days post-vaccination. Specific T-cell response peaked at day 14 post-vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine is tolerable and immunogenic at 28 days post-vaccination. Humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 peaked at day 28 post-vaccination in healthy adults, and rapid specific T-cell responses were noted from day 14 post-vaccination. Our findings suggest that the Ad5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine warrants further investigation. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, and CanSino Biologics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adenoviridae , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Young Adult
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