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1.
Global Mental Health ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1758035

ABSTRACT

Background Risk perception among nurses after the COVID-19 pandemic is a crucial factor affecting their attitudes and willingness to work in clinics. Those with poor psychological status could perceive risks sensitively as fears or threats that are discouraging. This article aimed to determine whether psychological outcomes, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and insomnia, following the COVID-19 pandemic were differentially related to the risk perceptions of nurses working in clinics and increased perceived risk. Method The participants were 668 nurse clinicians from five local hospitals. Risk perceptions and psychological outcomes were measured by adapted questionnaires via the Internet. Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified subgroups of individuals who showed similar profiles regarding the perceived risks in nursing. Multinomial regression and probit regression were used to examine the extent to which sociodemographic and psychological outcomes predicted class membership. Results LPA revealed four classes: groups with low-, mild-, moderate-, and high-level risk perceptions. Membership of the high-level risk perception class was predicted by the severity of psychological outcomes. Anxiety significantly accounted for a moderate increase in risk perceptions, while the symptoms of insomnia, depression, and PTSD accelerated the increase to the high level of risk perception class. Conclusions By classifying groups of nurse clinicians sharing similar profiles regarding risk perceptions and then exploring associated predictors, this study shows the psychological outcomes after COVID-19 significantly impacted pandemic-associated risk perceptions and suggests intervening in nurses' psychological outcomes while simultaneously focusing on work-related worries is important following the outbreak of COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 798897, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731763

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study investigated the incidence, disease course, risk factors, and mortality in COVID-19 patients who developed both acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute cardiac injury (ACI), and compared to those with AKI only, ACI only, and no injury (NI). Methods: This retrospective study consisted of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Montefiore Health System in Bronx, New York between March 11, 2020 and January 29, 2021. Demographics, comorbidities, vitals, and laboratory tests were collected during hospitalization. Predictive models were used to predict AKI, ACI, and AKI-ACI onset. Longitudinal laboratory tests were analyzed with time-lock to discharge alive or death. Results: Of the 5,896 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 44, 19, 9, and 28% had NI, AKI, ACI, and AKI-ACI, respectively. Most ACI presented very early (within a day or two) during hospitalization in contrast to AKI (p < 0.05). Patients with combined AKI-ACI were significantly older, more often men and had more comorbidities, and higher levels of cardiac, kidney, liver, inflammatory, and immunological markers compared to those of the AKI, ACI, and NI groups. The adjusted hospital-mortality odds ratios were 17.1 [95% CI = 13.6-21.7, p < 0.001], 7.2 [95% CI = 5.4-9.6, p < 0.001], and 4.7 [95% CI = 3.7-6.1, p < 0.001] for AKI-ACI, ACI, and AKI, respectively, relative to NI. A predictive model of AKI-ACI onset using top predictors yielded 97% accuracy. Longitudinal laboratory data predicted mortality of AKI-ACI patients up to 5 days prior to outcome, with an area-under-the-curve, ranging from 0.68 to 0.89. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with AKI-ACI had markedly worse outcomes compared to those only AKI, ACI and NI. Common laboratory variables accurately predicted AKI-ACI. The ability to identify patients at risk for AKI-ACI could lead to earlier intervention and improvement in clinical outcomes.

3.
Clin Obes ; : e12514, 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700258

ABSTRACT

The association between body mass index (BMI) and poor COVID-19 outcomes in patients has been demonstrated across numerous studies. However, obesity-related comorbidities have also been shown to be associated with poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether BMI or obesity-associated comorbidities contribute to elevated COVID-19 severity in non-elderly, hospitalized patients with elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2 ). This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 526 hospitalized, non-elderly adult (aged 18-64) COVID-19 patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 in suburban New York from March 6 to May 11, 2020. The Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) was used to quantify the severity of obesity-related comorbidities. EOSS was compared with BMI in multivariable regression analyses to predict COVID-19 outcomes. We found that higher EOSS scores were associated with poor outcomes after demographic adjustment, unlike BMI. Specifically, patients with increased EOSS scores had increased odds of acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.40; 95% CI 3.71-11.05), intensive care unit admission (aOR = 10.71; 95% CI 3.23-35.51), mechanical ventilation (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 2.01-4.78) and mortality (aOR = 5.05; 95% CI 1.83-13.90). Obesity-related comorbidity burden as determined by EOSS was a better predictor of poor COVID-19 outcomes relative to BMI, suggesting that comorbidity burden may be driving risk in those hospitalized with elevated BMI.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 386(6): 604, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692482
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324791

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in perinatal period, and systematically assess the mother-to-child transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 Methods: . We retrospectively analyzed the data of 23 pregnant patients in late pregnancy. Clinical specimens, including maternal and neonatal throat swabs, vaginal secretions, placenta tissues, and breast milk, were collected for the nucleic acid test of the virus. Pregnancy outcomes and neonatal results were also analyzed. Results: . Overall, 10 patients (43.5%) had no symptoms and were found by routine chest CT. Complications appeared after COVID-19 onset included PROM (17.4%) and fetal distress (4.3%). Typical signs of viral pneumonia were recorded in chest CT of all patients. No patients developed severe pneumonia or died of COVID-19. All of 25 neonates were born alive. No severe asphyxia or neonatal death was observed. Although three neonates were tested transiently suspected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after being transferred to neonatology department, no newborns developed COVID-19. Out of various clinical specimens tested, only a rectal swab sample from one pregnant patient was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, while all the other specimens including first sample of newborn throat swabs were negative. Pathological examination found no obvious chorioamnionitis or clear virus inclusion body in placenta, and ACE2 (angiotension-converting enzyme 2) was expressed at a moderate level. Conclusions: . As in the general population of COVID-19, asymptomatic patients were present in pregnant women. There is no confirmatory evidence for mother-to-child transmission in COVID-19 patients with late pregnancy.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322463

ABSTRACT

Managing epidemics need to unite each individual of the nations. Lockdown is an essential strategy to fatal and threatening epidemic. All of the citizens should realize that each of people has a responsibility to support the public health crisis. How to organize individual to fight against the epidemic plaque depends each of them. This essay discussed the COVID-19 pandemic relevant self-governance of community from a historical perspective in China. Self-governance of neighborhood committee and community residential office in urban and rural helped to control the COVID-19 pandemic in the communities in China. Co-operation and collective responsibility of citizens and community support is a critical condition to prevent epidemic. The community self-governance can track back Qin Dynasty in China history. It established baojia system to maintain social control for thousand years. Now, the community-based system, baojia system is becoming more autonomous for local citizenship and socialized governance in China. We reviewed a historical pneumonia plaque in North China in 1911. Chinese doctor, Wu Lien-teh (伍連德) confronted the epidemic crisis with many measures such as lockdown, quarantine, the wearing of mask, setup mobile hospitals, travel restriction, the cremation of victims, and border control. Dr. Wu made effort to establish the modern public health service in China. We think that the combination of culture background of China community with modern public healthcare system determinedly played important role to control the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317617

ABSTRACT

This study investigated in-hospital rehabilitation and functional status at discharge of non-critically ill COVID-19 survivors with respect to pre-admission dependency status, discharge durable medical equipment, discharge medical follow-up recommendation, hospitalization duration, demographics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, and vital signs at hospital discharge. Comparisons were made between COVID-19 survivors who received rehab (N=155) and those who did not (N=162). Functional scores were obtained using the “Mental Status”, ICU Mobility, and modified Barthel Index scores at hospital discharge. Relative to the non-rehab patients, rehab patients were older, had more comorbidities, had worse pre-admission dependency status (p<0.05), were discharged with more assistive equipment and supplemental oxygen (p<0.001), spent more days in the hospital (p<0.001), had more follow-up referrals (p<0.05) with cardiology, vascular medicine, urology, and endocrinology being the top referrals, and had more secondary in-hospital diagnosis of AKI and acute respiratory failure. Functional scores of non-critically ill COVID-19 survivors were impaired at discharge and were associated with pre-admission dependency. Some functional scores were negatively correlated with age, hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, psychiatric disease, anemia, and neurological disorders (p<0.05). These findings warrant follow up of COVID-19 survivors as many survivors will likely have significant post-acute COVID-19 sequela.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317616

ABSTRACT

Background: A significant number of COVID-19 patients have been treated using invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The ability to evaluate functional status of COVID-19 survivors early on at ICU and hospital discharge can help minimize ICU-acquired weakness, promote rapid functional recovery, and improve quality of life Methods: The modified “Mental Status”, ICU Mobility, and Barthel Index scores at ICU and hospital discharge were tabulated for 118 COVID-19 survivors treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). These functional scores were compared with pre-admission functional status, discharge durable medical equipment, discharge medical follow-up recommendation, duration on IMV, duration post IMV, demographics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, and vital signs at ICU and hospital discharge. Results: The majority of COVID-19 IMV patients were not functionally independent at hospital discharge (22% discharged with cane or rolling walker, 49% discharged with durable medical equipment, and 14% admitted to a rehabilitation facility), although they were prior to COVID-19 illness. Half of the patients were discharged with supplemental oxygen equipment. The most prevalent medical follow-up recommendations were cardiology, vascular medicine, pulmonology, endocrinology, and neurology with many patients receiving multiple medical follow-up recommendations. Functional status improved from ICU discharge to hospital discharge (p<0.001). Worse functional status at hospital discharge was associated with longer IMV duration, older age, male sex, higher number of comorbidities, and the presence of pre-existing comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and immunosuppression (p<0.05, ANOVA). Conclusions: The majority of IMV COVID-19 survivors were not functionally independent at discharge and required significant follow-up medical care. The COVID-19 circumstance has placed constraints on access to in-hospital rehabilitation. These findings underscore the need for prospective studies to ascertain the short- and long-term sequela in COVID-19 survivors.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312584

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed significant threats to international health. The genetic traits as well as evolutionary processes in this novel coronavirus are not fully characterized, and their roles in viral pathogenesis are yet largely unknown. To get a better picture of the codon architecture of this newly emerging coronavirus, in this study we perform bioinformatic analysis, based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of SARS-CoV-2 along with those of other members of human coronaviruses as well as non-human coronaviruses in different hosts, to take a snapshot of the genome-wide codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2 and uncover that all over-represented codons end with A/U and this newly emerging coronavirus has a relatively low codon usage bias, which is shaped by both mutation pressure and natural selection. Additionally, there is slight variation in the codon usage pattern among the SARS-CoV-2 isolates from different geo-locations. Furthermore, the overall codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2 is generally similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives among non-human betacoronaviruses such as RaTG13. Taken together, we comprehensively analyze the characteristics of codon usage pattern in SARS-CoV-2 via bioinformatic approaches. The information from this research may not only be helpful to get new insights into the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, but also have potential value for developing coronavirus vaccines.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312583

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of viral pneumonia in China due to a novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV poses significant threats to international health. In this study we perform bioinformatic analysis to take a snapshot of the codon usage pattern of 2019-nCoV and uncover that this novel coronavirus has a relatively low codon usage bias. The information from this research may not only be helpful to get new insights into the evolution of 2019-nCoV, but also have potential value for developing coronavirus vaccines.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103821, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although acute cardiac injury (ACI) is a known COVID-19 complication, whether ACI acquired during COVID-19 recovers is unknown. This study investigated the incidence of persistent ACI and identified clinical predictors of ACI recovery in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 2.5 months post-discharge. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 10,696 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March 11, 2020 to June 3, 2021. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory tests were collected at ACI onset, hospital discharge, and 2.5 months post-discharge. ACI was defined as serum troponin-T (TNT) level >99th-percentile upper reference limit (0.014ng/mL) during hospitalization, and recovery was defined as TNT below this threshold 2.5 months post-discharge. Four models were used to predict ACI recovery status. RESULTS: There were 4,248 (39.7%) COVID-19 patients with ACI, with most (93%) developed ACI on or within a day after admission. In-hospital mortality odds ratio of ACI patients was 4.45 [95%CI: 3.92, 5.05, p<0.001] compared to non-ACI patients. Of the 2,880 ACI survivors, 1,114 (38.7%) returned to our hospitals 2.5 months on average post-discharge, of which only 302 (44.9%) out of 673 patients recovered from ACI. There were no significant differences in demographics, race, ethnicity, major commodities, and length of hospital stay between groups. Prediction of ACI recovery post-discharge using the top predictors (troponin, creatinine, lymphocyte, sodium, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocytes and hematocrit) at discharge yielded 63.73%-75.73% accuracy. INTERPRETATION: Persistent cardiac injury is common among COVID-19 survivors. Readily available patient data accurately predict ACI recovery post-discharge. Early identification of at-risk patients could help prevent long-term cardiovascular complications. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Heart Injuries/diagnosis , Troponin I/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/etiology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1271, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a 6-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a 6-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 4 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a 6-month follow-up after discharge. RESULTS: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At 6-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.33-12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.06-10.81, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a 6-month follow-up; intervention strategies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262811, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although patients with severe COVID-19 are known to be at high risk of developing thrombotic events, the effects of anticoagulation (AC) dose and duration on in-hospital mortality in critically ill patients remain poorly understood and controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate survival of critically ill COVID-19 patients who received prophylactic or therapeutic dose AC and analyze the mortality rate with respect to detailed demographic and clinical characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU at Stony Brook University Hospital in New York who received either prophylactic (n = 158) or therapeutic dose AC (n = 153). Primary outcome was in-hospital death assessed by survival analysis and covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: For the first 3 weeks of ICU stay, we observed similar survival curves for prophylactic and therapeutic AC groups. However, after 3 or more weeks of ICU stay, the therapeutic AC group, characterized by high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), had markedly higher death incidence rates with 8.6 deaths (95% CI = 6.2-11.9 deaths) per 1,000 person-days and about 5 times higher risk of death (adj. HR = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.71-14.0, p = 0.003) than the prophylactic group (2.4 deaths [95% CI = 0.9-6.3 deaths] per 1,000 person-days). Among therapeutic AC users with prolonged ICU admission, non-survivors were characterized by older males with depressed lymphocyte counts and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings raise the possibility that prolonged use of high dose AC, independent of thrombotic events or clinical background, might be associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality. Moreover, AKI, age, lymphocyte count, and cardiovascular disease may represent important risk factors that could help identify at-risk patients who require long-term hospitalization with therapeutic dose AC treatment.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Age Factors , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/complications
14.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):461-461, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584546
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21039, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493204

ABSTRACT

This study investigated pre-COVID-19 admission dependency, discharge assistive equipment, discharge medical follow-up recommendation, and functional status at hospital discharge of non-critically ill COVID-19 survivors, stratified by those with (N = 155) and without (N = 162) in-hospital rehabilitation. "Mental Status", intensive-care-unit (ICU) Mobility, and modified Barthel Index scores were assessed at hospital discharge. Relative to the non-rehabilitation patients, rehabilitation patients were older, had more comorbidities, worse pre-admission dependency, were discharged with more assistive equipment and supplemental oxygen, spent more days in the hospital, and had more hospital-acquired acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, and more follow-up referrals (p < 0.05 for all). Cardiology, vascular medicine, urology, and endocrinology were amongst the top referrals. Functional scores of many non-critically ill COVID-19 survivors were abnormal at discharge (p < 0.05) and were associated with pre-admission dependency (p < 0.05). Some functional scores were negatively correlated with age, hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, psychiatric disease, anemia, and neurological disorders (p < 0.05). In-hospital rehabilitation providing restorative therapies and assisting discharge planning were challenging in COVID-19 circumstances. Knowledge of the functional status, discharge assistive equipment, and follow-up medical recommendations at discharge could enable appropriate and timely post-discharge care. Follow-up studies of COVID-19 survivors are warranted as many will likely have significant post-acute COVID-19 sequela.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Rehabilitation/methods , Aftercare , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
16.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1244-1262, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493090

ABSTRACT

The infusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) potentially improves clinical symptoms, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled (29 patients/group) phase II clinical trial to validate previous findings and explore the potential mechanisms. Patients treated with umbilical cord-derived MSCs exhibited a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0198) and less time required for symptoms remission (P = 0.0194) than those who received placebo. Based on chest images, both severe and critical patients treated with MSCs showed improvement by day 7 (P = 0.0099) and day 21 (P = 0.0084). MSC-treated patients had fewer adverse events. MSC infusion reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and promoted the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. To explore how MSCs modulate the immune system, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on peripheral blood. Our analysis identified a novel subpopulation of VNN2+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like (HSPC-like) cells expressing CSF3R and PTPRE that were mobilized following MSC infusion. Genes encoding chemotaxis factors - CX3CR1 and L-selectin - were upregulated in various immune cells. MSC treatment also regulated B cell subsets and increased the expression of costimulatory CD28 in T cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an in vivo mouse study confirmed that MSCs suppressed NET release and reduced venous thrombosis by upregulating kindlin-3 signaling. Together, our results underscore the role of MSCs in improving COVID-19 patient outcomes via maintenance of immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
17.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(10): 1209-1216, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358981

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) often presents with worsening gas exchange over a period of days. Once patients require mechanical ventilation (MV), the temporal change in gas exchange and its relation to clinical outcome is poorly described. We investigated whether gas exchange over the first 5 days of MV is associated with mortality and ventilator-free days at 28 days in COVID-19. Methods: In a cohort of 294 COVID-19 patients, we used data during the first 5 days of MV to calculate 4 daily respiratory scores: PaO2/FiO2 (P/F), oxygenation index (OI), ventilatory ratio (VR), and Murray lung injury score. The association between these scores at early (days 1-3) and late (days 4-5) time points with mortality was evaluated using logistic regression, adjusted for demographics. Correlation with ventilator-free days was assessed (Spearman rank-order coefficients). Results: Overall mortality was 47.6%. Nonsurvivors were older (P < .0001), more male (P = .029), with more preexisting cardiopulmonary disease compared to survivors. Mean PaO2 and PaCO2 were similar during this timeframe. However, by days 4 to 5 values for all airway pressures and FiO2 had diverged, trending lower in survivors and higher in nonsurvivors. The most substantial between-group difference was the temporal change in OI, improving 15% in survivors and worsening 11% in nonsurvivors (P < .05). The adjusted mortality OR was significant for age (1.819, P = .001), OI at days 4 to 5 (2.26, P = .002), and OI percent change (1.90, P = .02). The number of ventilator-free days correlated significantly with late VR (-0.166, P < .05), early and late OI (-0.216, P < .01; -0.278, P < .01, respectively) and early and late P/F (0.158, P < .05; 0.283, P < .01, respectively). Conclusion: Nonsurvivors of COVID-19 needed increasing intensity of MV to sustain gas exchange over the first 5 days, unlike survivors. Temporal change OI, reflecting both PaO2 and the intensity of MV, is a potential marker of outcome in respiratory failure due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323102

ABSTRACT

The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 is a viral sensor for detecting single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA), the activation of which can induce intracellular innate immunity against viral infections. Imiquimod, a synthetic ligand for TLR7, has been successfully used for the topical treatment of genital/perianal warts in immunocompetent individuals. We studied the effect of imiquimod on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of primary human macrophages and demonstrated that the treatment of cells with imiquimod effectively inhibited infection with multiple strains (Bal, YU2, and Jago) of HIV. This anti-HIV activity of imiquimod was the most potent when macrophages were treated prior to infection. Infection of macrophages with pseudotyped HIV NL4-3-ΔEnv-eGFP-Bal showed that imiquimod could block the viral entry. Further mechanistic studies revealed that while imiquimod had little effect on the interferons (IFNs) expression, its treatment of macrophages resulted in the increased production of the CC chemokines (human macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), MIP-1ß, and upon activation regulated normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES)), the natural ligands of HIV entry co-receptor CCR5, and decreased the expression of CD4 and CCR5. The addition of the antibodies against the CC chemokines to macrophage cultures could block imiquimod-mediated HIV inhibition. These findings provide experimental evidence to support the notion that TLR7 participates in the intracellular immunity against HIV in macrophages, suggesting the further clinical evaluation of imiquimod for its additional benefit of treating genital/perianal warts in people infected with HIV.

19.
Hepatol Int ; 15(4): 1018-1026, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired liver injury is associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19. This study investigated the temporal progression of clinical variables of in-hospital liver injury in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: COVID-19 patients (n = 1361) were divided into no, mild and severe liver injury (nLI, mLI and sLI) groups. Time courses of laboratory variables were time-locked to liver-injury onset defined by alanine aminotransferase level. Predictors of liver injury were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of mLI was 39.4% and sLI was 9.2%. Patients with escalated care had higher prevalence of sLI (23.2% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.05). sLI developed 9.4 days after hospitalization. sLI group used more invasive ventilation, anticoagulants, steroids, and dialysis (p < 0.05). sLI, but not mLI, had higher adjusted mortality odds ratio (= 1.37 [95% CI 1.10, 1.70], p = 0.005). Time courses of the clinical variables of the sLI group differed from those of the nLI and mLI group. In the sLI group, alanine aminotransferase, procalcitonin, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase showed similar temporal profiles, whereas white-blood-cell count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, respiration and heart rate were elevated early on, and lymphocyte and SpO2 were lower early on. The top predictors of sLI were alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, respiration rate, ferritin, and lymphocyte, yielding an AUC of 0.98, 0.92, 0.88 and 0.84 at 0, - 1, - 2 and - 3 days prior to onset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified key clinical variables predictive of liver injury in COVID-19, which may prove useful for management of liver injury. Late onset of sLI and more aggressive care are suggestive of treatment-related hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Liver , Alanine Transaminase , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Liver/injuries , Liver Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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