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1.
Future virology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678760

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir–ritonavir (LPV/r) therapy in treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials & methods: Data from randomized and observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Primary outcomes were length of stay, time for SARS-CoV-2 test conversion, mortality, incidence of mechanical ventilation, time to body temperature normalization and incidence of adverse events. Results: Twenty-four studies (n = 10,718) were included. LPV/r demonstrated no significant benefit over the control groups in all efficacy outcomes. The use of LPV/r was associated with a significant increase in the odds of adverse events. Conclusion: Given the lack of efficacy and increased incidence of adverse events, the clinical use of LPV/r in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is not recommended.

2.
Future Virol ; 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666912

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) therapy in treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials & methods: Data from randomized and observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Primary outcomes were length of stay, time for SARS-CoV-2 test conversion, mortality, incidence of mechanical ventilation, time to body temperature normalization and incidence of adverse events. Results: Twenty-four studies (n = 10,718) were included. LPV/r demonstrated no significant benefit over the control groups in all efficacy outcomes. The use of LPV/r was associated with a significant increase in the odds of adverse events. Conclusion: Given the lack of efficacy and increased incidence of adverse events, the clinical use of LPV/r in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is not recommended.

3.
Future Virol ; 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561748

ABSTRACT

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, with or without azithromycin, in treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Materials & methods: Data from randomized and observational studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. Primary outcomes included time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 tests, length of stay, mortality, incidence of mechanical ventilation, time to normalization of body temperature, incidence of adverse events and incidence of QT prolongations. Results: Fifty-one studies (n = 61,221) were included. Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine showed no efficacy in all primary efficacy outcomes, but was associated with increased odds of QT prolongations. Conclusion: Due to a lack of efficacy and increased odds of cardiac adverse events, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine should not be used for treating hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

4.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113863, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474998

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying infection control measures introduced significant disruptions to the routines of many higher education students around the world. It also deprived them of in-person counselling services and social support. These changes have put students at a greater risk of developing mental illness. The objective of this review is to assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances in higher education students during the pandemic. A systematic search of English and Chinese databases was conducted current to January 1st, 2021. The quality of included studies was evaluated using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbances were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Eighty-nine studies (n=1,441,828) were included. The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and sleep disturbances was 34%, 32% and 33%, respectively. The prevalence values differ based on geographical regions, diagnostic criteria, education level, undergraduate year of study, financial situation, living arrangements and gender. Overall, the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms synthesized in this study was higher compared to pre-pandemic prevalence in similar populations. Evidently, mental health screening and intervention should be a top priority for universities and colleges during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/physiology , Universities
5.
The FASEB Journal ; 35(S1), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1388026

ABSTRACT

As undergraduate students in a Health Sciences Program we were selected as teaching assistants (TAs) in a freshman introductory Cellular and Molecular Biology course that we had all taken in a standard format. The course was tightly focused on cell communication (Adv Physiol Educ 36: 13?19, 2012, Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2013 May-Jun;41(3):145-55). The new version was offered synchronously on-line to 273 students who were in different time zones (within Canada and abroad, Africa, Asia). Didactic sessions (both flipped/non-flipped) were followed by TA sessions (60-90 mins.) designed to help students consolidate content and prepare them for active assessments used (The FASEB Journal, 31: 575.2-575.2.). Each tutorial Group had on the average, twenty students. For the tutorials, we met them in virtual break-out rooms where we had considerable flexibility to organize our sessions. Larger groups were reconvened to meet the instructors either on the same day or on a separate session. These sessions served to further consolidate their learning. In addition, we had the options of organizing office hours on our own to deal with our students. We were taking several of our own on-line courses in parallel. These dual obligations as teachers in one course and learners for several others posed many challenges. As teachers, we had to foster engagement, promote interactions, gauge comprehension, maintain enthusiasm, identify individual learning needs despite lack of verbal, non-verbal cues as many students remained both silent and invisible and also deal with technical glitches. To prepare for our own courses we faced similar technical issues, maintained enthusiasm, battled online fatigue, engaged with our Professors and TAs, dealt with conflicting schedules, found resources, remained flexible, and stayed focused as the lack of a distinct campus environment blurred boundaries between home and academia. We adapted rapidly to cope with these concurrent contrary demands.

6.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1486(1): 90-111, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263856

ABSTRACT

Evidence from previous coronavirus outbreaks has shown that infected patients are at risk for developing psychiatric and mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. To construct a comprehensive picture of the mental health status in COVID-19 patients, we conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in this population. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Wanfang Data, Wangfang Med Online, CNKI, and CQVIP for relevant articles, and we included 31 studies (n = 5153) in our analyses. We found that the pooled prevalence of depression was 45% (95% CI: 37-54%, I2  = 96%), the pooled prevalence of anxiety was 47% (95% CI: 37-57%, I2  = 97%), and the pooled prevalence of sleeping disturbances was 34% (95% CI: 19-50%, I2  = 98%). We did not find any significant differences in the prevalence estimates between different genders; however, the depression and anxiety prevalence estimates varied based on different screening tools. More observational studies assessing the mental wellness of COVID-19 outpatients and COVID-19 patients from countries other than China are needed to further examine the psychological implications of COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Prevalence , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
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